Rules Regarding Purity

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Rules Regarding Purity

Mixed and Unmixed Water

Rule No.14: Water is either unmixed or mixed. Mixed water (Maa'ul-Mudhaf) means the water which is extracted from something like melon juice, or rose water, or that water in which something else is mixed (for example, so much dust is mixed in it that it may no longer be called water).

Any water other than mixed water is called unmixed water (Maa’ul-Mutlaq), and they are of five types:

(1) Kurr water (the quantity of water which equals to Kurr)

(2) Qaleel water (the quanity of water which is less than Kurr)

(3) Running water

(4) Rain water

(5) Well water

I. Kurr water

Rule No.15: Water which fills a container whose length, breadth and depth are three and half spans each, is equal to a Kurr. The weight of this water is about 390.120 kilograms.

Rule No.16: If an essential impurity like urine, blood, or anything which has become impure like an impure cloth falls in Kurr water, and if there is some physical change in the water due to that impurity, it becomes impure, but if there is no such change, then it is not impure. Physical change means change in colour, taste or smell.

Rule No.17: If there is a physical change in Kurr water due to something else which is not impure, it does not become impure.

Rule No.18: If an essential impurity like blood reaches water which is more than a Kurr, and if some physical change occurs in a part of it, then if the unchanged part is less than a Kurr, the entire water becomes impure. But if the unchanged part is one Kurr or more, then only that part which has changed will be impure.

Rule No.19: If water of a spring is connected to Kurr, the water of the spring will make impure water pure. But if it falls on the impure water drop by drop, it will not make it pure, except when something is placed over the spring, so that before the drops are formed, it connects the impure water. It is better if the water of the spring is totally merged with the impure water.

Rule No.20: If an impure object is washed under a tap which is connected with Kurr water, and if water which flows from that object remains connected with Kurr water, and does not contain the smell, colour, or taste of the impurity or essential impurity, that water will be pure.

Rule No.21: If a part of Kurr water freezes to ice, leaving a quantity less than a Kurr, and then impurity reaches it, it will become impure, and water obtained from of ice also will be impure.

Rule No.22: If the quantity of water was equal to a Kurr and later on, if someone doubts whether it has been reduced to less than a Kurr, it will be treated to be equal to a Kurr (i.e. it will make an impure object pure, and will not become impure if impurity reaches it). And if water was less than a Kurr, and one suspects that it may have become equal to a Kurr, it will be treated as under-Kurr water.

Rule No.23: There are two ways of establishing that the quantity of water is equal to a Kurr:

(1) A person should be sure about it himself.

(2) Two men who are just should say so, but also if one just person or a reliable person says so, it will be enough.

II. Under-Kurr water

Rule No.24: Under-Kurr water means water which does not spring forth from the earth, and its quantity is less than a Kurr.

Rule No.25: If under-Kurr water is poured on something which is impure, or if an impure thing contacts it, it becomes impure. But, if such water is poured with force on an impure object, only that part which contacts it will be impure, and the water which has not reached the impure object, will be pure.

Rule No.26: Under-Kurr water which is poured over an impure object to remove the essential impurity will be impure, as it flows after the contact. Similarly, the under-Kurr water which is poured over an impure thing to wash it after the removal of essential impurity will also be impure.

Rule No.27: The water with which the outlets of urine and stool are washed is impure, but the drops and moisture remained after washing on the body is pure.

III. Running water

Running water is that water which springs forth from the earth and then flows provided that it is always connected to at least a Kurr water source, like the water of a spring or a canal.

Rule No.28: If impurity reaches the running water, only that part of the water will be impure whose smell, colour, or taste changes on account of it, and the remaining part of water if connected with the spring which springs forth permanently will be pure. Similarly, the water on the other side of the canal will be pure, if it is equal to a Kurr, or if it is connected with the water near the spring through unchanged water. If not, then it would be impure.

Rule No.29: A spring which does not run or flow, but replaces water every time when water is drawn from it, will be treated as running water. That means if impurity reaches it, and if there is no physical change in the water due to that impurity, the water will be pure.

Rule No.30: If water at the bank of a canal is stationary, but is connected with running water, it will not be impure if its colour, taste or smell is not changed due to some impurity.

Rule No.31: If a spring is active in winter, but remains dormant in summer, it will be treated as running water only when it is active.

Rule No.32: If the water in a pool or tank of a public bath (Hammam) is less than a Kurr, but is connected with a store of water which when added to it becomes equal to a Kurr, it does not become impure by meeting an impurity if its smell, colour or taste does not change.

Rule No.33: If water from the pipes fitted in bathrooms and buildings, pouring through taps and showers, is connected to a tank holding water of at least a Kurr, it will be treated as Kurr water.

Rule No.34: Any water which flows on the ground but does not gush from it, will become impure on contacting impurity, if it is less than Kurr. But if water flows with force and impurity touches it at the lower end, the upper end will not become impure.

IV. Rain water

Rule No.35: An impure thing becomes pure if rain water falls on it, provided that it does not contain an essential impurity, and in objects like carpets and dress, it is not necessary to wring or squeeze. “Rain’ is defined as a sufficient downpour, and not scanty showers or droplets.

Rule No.36: If rain water falls on an essential impurity and splashes elsewhere, and if the essential impurity is not found in the water, nor does it acquire the smell, colour, or taste of the impurity, then that water is pure. So, if it rains on blood and then splashes, and particles of blood are seen in the water, or it acquires the smell, colour, or taste of blood, it is impure.

Rule No.37: If there is an essential impurity on the upper or lower roof of a building, and water flows down from the roof after contacting the impure object, it will be pure as long as the rain continues provided that it does not contain the smell, colour and taste of impurity. But if it continues to flow down the same way after contacting the impure object, after the rain has stopped, that water will be impure.

Rule No.38: The impure earth or ground on which rain falls becomes pure provided that essential impurity is not present there, and if it begins flowing on the ground, and while it is still raining it reaches an impure place, it makes that place pure as well.

Rule No.39: If rain water falls on impure dust, soaking it thoroughly, it becomes pure provided that essential impurity is not present there.

Rule No.40: If rain water collects at a place, even if its quantity is less than Kurr, and an impure thing is washed in it while it is raining, it becomes pure, provided that it does not assume the smell, colour, or taste of that impurity .

Rule No.41: If it rains on a pure carpet which is spread over an impure ground, and if the water starts flowing on the impure ground while rain continues, the carpet does not become impure. In fact, the ground also will become pure.

V. Well Water

Rule No.42: The water of a well which springs forth from the earth, although its quantity may be less than a Kurr, does not become impure if something impure falls in it, unless its colour, smell, or taste changes. However, it is recommended that, in the event of certain impurity falling in it, a particular quantity of water should be drawn from the well. Details about this quantity are given in the relevant books.

Rule No.43: If an impurity falls into well water and changes its smell, colour, or taste, it will become pure as soon as the change in its smell, colour, or taste vanishes. However, it is better to wait till it is mixed with the fresh water springing from the earth.

Rule No.44: If rain water is collected in a hole, and its quantity is less than a Kurr, it will become impure if impurity reaches it after the rain has stopped.

Rules Relating to Water

Rule No.45: Mixed water does not make any impure thing pure, and it cannot be used for ritual bath and ablution.

Rule No.46: Mixed water, however large its quantity may be, becomes impure when even a small particle of impurity falls in it. But, if it falls on an impure thing from above with some force, the part which touches the impurity will become impure, and the part which does not touch it, will remain pure. For example, if rose water is sprinkled on an impure hand from a sprinkler, the part which reaches the hand will be impure, and the part which does not reach the hand will remain pure.

Rule No.47: When impure mixed water is mixed with Kurr or running water in a manner that it can no longer be called mixed water, it becomes pure.

Rule No.48: Water which was originally pure and later it is not known whether it has turned into mixed water, will be treated as pure (i.e. it will make an impure thing pure and it will also be permissible for ablution and ritual bath). But if it was originally mixed water, and it is not known whether it has turned into pure water, it will be treated as mixed water (i.e. it will not make impure objects pure, and it cannot be used for ablution and bath).

Rule No.49: Water about which it is not known whether it is pure or mixed, will not make impure things pure, but it is not permissible to perform ablution and bath with it. It also becomes impure when an impurity reaches it, even if it is equal to a Kurr or more.

Rule No.50: When an essential impurity like blood and urine reaches water, and changes its smell, colour, or taste, it becomes impure even if it is Kurr or running water. However, if the smell, colour, or taste of the water changes owing to an impurity which is outside it for example, if a carcass lying by the side of the water causes a change in smell, the water will not be impure.

Rule No.51: If water which has become impure due to impurity like blood or urine, and changed its smell, colour, or taste, joins Kurr-water or running water, or if rain water falls on it, or is blown over it by the winds, or rain water falls on it through the drain pipe while it is raining, in all above situations the water will become pure if the change vanishes. However, as a recommended precaution, rain water, or Kurr water, or running water should be mixed with it.

Rule No.52: If an impure object is made pure in Kurr or running water, the water which falls from the object after it has become pure, is pure.

Rule No.53: Water, which was originally pure, and it is not known whether it has become impure, will be pure; and water, which was originally impure, and it is not known whether it has become pure, is impure.

Rule No.54: The bodily waste of a dog, a pig and an infidel is impure (those beings who are ritually impure, or najis), and it is prohibited to eat or drink it. However, the bodily waste of the animals whose meat is prohibited, is pure, and with the exception of cat, it is hateful (Makrooh) to eat or drink the bodily waste of such animals.

Rules of the Lavatory

Rule No.55: It is obligatory to conceal one's private parts in the lavatory and at all times from adult persons even if they are one's near relatives like mother, sister etc. Similarly, it is obligatory to conceal one's private parts from insane persons, and from children who can discern between good and evil. However, husband and wife or master and his maid-slave are exempted from this rule.

Rule No.56: It is not necessary for a person to conceal the private parts with any definite thing, it is sufficient, if one conceals them with his hands

Rule No.57: While using the toilet for relieving oneself, the front or the back part of one's body should not face the holy Ka'bah.

Rule No.58: If a person sits in the toilet with the front part of his body or the back facing the Qibla, but turns the private parts away from that direction, it will not be enough. Similarly, when the front part of the body or the back does not face Qibla, as an obligatory precaution, he should not turn the private parts to face that direction.

Rule No.59: The recommended precaution is that one should not face the Qibla or have one's back towards it at the time of Istibra (to be explained later), nor at the time of washing oneself to become pure after relief.

Rule No.60: If one sits facing the Qibla, or with his back towards it in state of helplessness, so as to avoid somebody looking at him, or when there is an unavoidable excuse for sitting that way, it is permissible to do so.

Rule No.61: It is an obligatory precaution that even a child should not be made to sit in the toilet with its face or back facing Qibla. But if the child positions itself that way, it is not obligatory to divert it.

Rule No.62: It is prohibited to relieve oneself at the following four places:

(1) In blind alleys, without the permission of the people who live there.

(2) On the property (land) of a person who has not granted permission for the purpose.

(3) At a place which is exclusively endowed for its beneficiaries, like some Madrassahs.

(4) On the graves of believers, and at the sacred places whose sanctity will thus be violated.

Rule No.63: In the following three cases, the anus can be made pure with water alone:

(1) If another impurity, like blood, appears along with the feces.

(2) If an external impurity reaches the anus.

(3) If more than usual impurity spreads around the anus.

In the cases other than those mentioned above, anus can be made pure either by water or by using cloth, or stone etc., although it is always better to wash it with water.

Rule No.64: The urinary organ cannot be made pure without water. If one uses Kurr or running water, then washing the organ once will suffice, after removal of essential impurity. But, if one uses under-Kurr water, then it is obligatory to wash it twice, better still, three times.

Rule No.65: If the anus is washed with water, one should ensure that no trace of feces is left on it. However, there is no harm if the colour and smell remain. If it is washed thoroughly in the first instance, leaving no particle of stool, then it is not necessary to wash it again.

Rule No.66: The anus can be made pure with stone, clod or cloth or things like these provided they are dry and pure. If there is slight moisture on it, which does not reach the outlet, there is no objection.

Rule No.67: If one makes oneself totally pure with stone, clod or cloth, as an obligatory precaution there should be three pieces of it, to use three times. And if one does not get totally pure after three times, he may continue till he is pure. However, there in no harm, if invisible, tiny particles are still there.

Rule No.68: It is prohibited to make the anus pure with things which are sacred and revered, such as a paper on which the names of Allah and the Prophets (A.S.) and Infallibles (A.S.) are written. And using bones or dung for the purpose is problematic.

Rule No.69: If a person doubts whether he has made the outlet pure, it is necessary that he should make it pure even if he has always done so as a matter of habit.

Rule No.70: When a person doubts after prayer whether he made the outlet pure before he started the prayers, then in the situation, if he feels he was attentive about that before starting prayer, then prayer already prayed will be valid, but for the subsequent prayers, he will make himself pure.

Absolution or Istibra

Rule No.71: Absolution is a recommended act for men after urinating for ensuring that no more urine is left in the urethra.

There are certain ways of performing absolution, and the best of them is that after the passing of urine, if the anus also becomes impure it is made pure first. Thereafter, the part between the anus and the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be jerked three times.

Rule No.72: The moisture which is discharged by man during wooing and courtship is called 'Mazi'. It is pure, and so is the liquid which is seen after the completion of ejaculation. It is called 'Wazi'. Similarly, the liquid which at times comes out after urine, is called 'Wadi' and it is pure if urine has not reached it. If a person performs absolution after urinating, and then discharges liquid doubting whether it is urine, or one of the above mentioned three liquids, that liquid is pure.

Rule No.73: If a person doubts whether he has performed absolution or not, and then discharges a liquid about which he is not sure whether it is pure or not, that liquid will be impure, and if he has performed ablution it becomes void. However, if he doubts whether he performed the absolution correctly or not, and a liquid is discharged about which he is not sure whether it is pure or not, that liquid will be pure, and it will not invalidate the ablution.

Rule No.74: If a person performs absolution, and also performs ablution, and if after ablution he sees a liquid discharged, of which he thinks that it is either urine or semen, it will be obligatory upon him to take a ritual bath, together with ablution. But if he had not done ablution after absolution, then ablution alone will be sufficient.

Rule No.75: If a person did not perform absolution and enough time has elapsed since urinating, and one becomes sure that no urine is left in urinary passage, and then he sees some liquid, doubting whether it is pure or not, he will consider it as pure. If he has ablution, it will be valid.

Rule No.76: Absolution is not meant for women, and if she sees any liquid and she doubts whether it is urine, that liquid is pure, and it will not invalidate ablution and bath.

Recommended (Mustahab) and Hateful (Makrooh) Acts

Rule No.77: It is recommended (mustahab) that a person sitting for relieving himself, sits at a place where no one would see him, and enters the toilet with his left foot forward, and comes out with his right foot. It is also recommended to cover one's head, and to place one's weight on the left foot.

Rule No.78. It is hateful (makrooh) to face the sun or the moon, while relieving oneself. But if a person manages to cover his private parts, it will not be hateful. Moreover, it is hateful to sit for urinating etc. facing the wind; or on the road side, or in lanes, or in front of the doors of a house or under the shade of the fruit-yielding tree. It is also hateful to eat while relieving oneself, or take longer than usual time, or to wash oneself with the right hand. Talking is also hateful unless necessary. To utter words remembering Allah is not hateful.

Rule No.79: It is hateful to urinate while standing, or on hard earth, or in the burrows of the animals, or in water and especially in stationery water.

Rule No.80: It is hateful to suppress or constrain one's urge for urine or excretion, and if it is injurious to one's health, it becomes prohibited.

Rule No.81: It is recommended to urinate before prayer, before retiring to sleep, before sexual intercourse, and after ejaculation.