Impure Things

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Impure Things

Rule No.82: The following ten things are essentially impure:

(1) Urine

(2) Feces

(3) Semen

(4) Dead body

(5) Blood

(6) Dog

(7) Pig

(8) Infidel

(9) Alcoholic beverages and all essentially liquid intoxicants

(10) Beer

Urine and Feces

Rule No.83: Urine and feces of human beings and of every animal whose flesh is forbidden to eat, and which has spurting blood (that is, whose arteries spurt blood when severed) are impure.

The excretion of those animals who are forbidden to eat, but whose blood does not spurt when killed, like prohibited fish, is pure. Similarly, droppings of mosquito and flies are pure.

Rule No.84: The urine and droppings of those birds which are forbidden to eat, is pure, but it is better to avoid them.

Rule No.85; The urine and excretion of an animal who eats filth or impurity, and of a goat who was nursed by a pig, and of a quadruped who has been defiled by a human being, are impure.


Rule No.86: The semen of human beings, and of every animal whose blood spurts when its large vein (jugular) is cut, is impure.

Dead Body

Rule No.87: The dead body of a human being and of any animal with spurting blood is impure, irrespective of whether it dies a natural death, or is killed in a manner other than that prescribed by Islam. As the blood of a fish does not spurt, its dead body is pure, even if it dies in water.

Rule No.88: The lifeless parts of a dead body like wool, hair, teeth, nails, bones and horns are pure.

Rule No.89: If flesh, or any other part which contains life, is cut off from the body of a living human being, or a living animal with spurting blood, it will be impure.

Rule No.90: Small pieces of skin which peel off from the lips, or other parts of the body, are pure.

Rule No.91: An egg from the body of a dead hen is pure if its shell is hard, but its exterior must be washed.

Rule No.92: If a lamb or a kid (young goat) dies before it is able to graze, the rennet (cheese) found in its stomach is pure, but its exterior should be washed with water.

Rule No.93: The liquid medicines, perfumes, ghee, soap and wax polish which are imported are pure, if one is not sure of their being impure.

Rule No.94: Fat, flesh or hide of an animal, about which there is a probability that it may have been slaughtered according to the Islamic law, are pure. However, if these things are obtained from a non-Muslim, or from a Muslim who himself obtained them from a non-Muslim, without investigating whether the animal was slaughtered according to Islamic law, it is prohibited to eat that flesh and fat, and prayer in that hide is not permissible. But, if these things are obtained from Muslim market, or a Muslim, and it is not known that he got them from a non-Muslim, or if it is known that he got from a non-Muslim but there is a great probability that he has investigated about it being slaughtered according to Islamic law, the use of such hide meat and fat is permissible.


Rule No.95: The blood of a human being, and of every animal having spurting blood when severed, is impure, whether its flesh is permissible or prohibited. The blood of an animal like a fish, or an insect like mosquito, is pure because it does not have spurting blood.

Rule No.96: If an animal whose meat is permissible to eat is slaughtered in accordance with the method prescribed by lslamic law, and sufficient blood flows out, the blood which is still left in its body is pure. However, the blood which goes back into the body of the animal due to breath, or because of its head having been at a higher level, is impure.

Rule No.97: As an obligatory precaution, one should refrain from eating an egg which has even the smallest amount of blood in it. However, if the blood is in the yolk (yellow portion) the albumen (white portion) will be pure, as long as the membrane over the yolk is not torn.

Rule No.98: The blood which is sometimes seen while milking an animal, is impure, and makes the milk impure.

Rule No.99: If the blood which comes from the gums vanishes as it gets mixed with the saliva, the saliva is pure.

Rule No.100: If the blood which dries under the nail or skin, on account of an injury, can no longer be called blood, it is pure. But if it is called blood, then it is impure. And if a hole appears in the nail or the skin, and if it is difficult to remove the blood and to make it pure for the purpose of ablution or bath, then one should perform dry ablution (tayammum).

Rule No.101: If a person cannot discern whether it is dried blood under the skin, or that the flesh has turned that way because of being hit, it is pure.

Rule No.102: Even a small particle of blood falling in the food, while it is being boiled, will make the entire food together with its container impure, and boiling, heat, or fire does not make it pure.

Rule No.103: The yellow substance which forms around the wound when it is healing, is pure if it is not known to have been mixed with blood.

Dogs and Pigs

Rule No.104: The dogs and pigs which live on land are impure, and even their hair, bones, paws and nails, and every liquid substance of their body, are impure. However, sea dogs and pigs are pure.


Rule No.105: An infidel (i.e. a person who does not believe in Allah and His Oneness, who denies the Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad [Peace be upon him and his progeny], or who denies the hereafter) is impure. Similarly, the Ghulat who believe in any of the holy twelve Imams as God, or that they are incarnations of God, and the Khawarij and Nawasib who express enmity towards the holy Imams, are also impure.

As regards to the people of the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians) who do not accept the Prophethood of Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah (P.B.U.H.), they are impure, and it is obligatory to avoid them. Similar is the case of those who deny Prophethood or any of the necessary laws of Islam, like prayer and fasting, which are believed by the Muslims as a part of Islam, and which they also know as such.

Rule No.106: The entire body of an infidel, including his hair and nails, and all liquid substances of his body, are impure.

Rule No.107: If the parents, paternal grandmother and paternal grandfather of a minor child are all infidels, that child is impure, except when he is intelligent enough, and professes Islam. When even one person from his parents or grandparents is a Muslim, the child is pure.

Rule No.108: A person, about whom it is not known whether he is a Muslim or not, will be considered pure. But he will not have the privileges of a Muslim (i.e. he cannot marry a Muslim woman, nor can he be buried in a Muslim cemetery).

Rule No.109: Any person who abuses any of the twelve holy Imams on account of enmity, is impure.

Alcoholic Liquor

Rule No.110: All Alcoholic liquors and beverages which intoxicate a person, are impure, and on the same basis everything which is originally liquid and intoxicates a person, is impure. Hence narcotics, like opium and hemp, which are not liquid originally, are pure, even when a liquid is added to them. But the use of any kind of narcotics for intoxication is forbidden.

Rule No.111: All kinds of industrial alcohol used for painting doors, windows, tables, chairs etc. are impure.

Rule No.112: If grapes or grape juice ferments by itself, or on being cooked, they are impure, and it is prohibited to eat or drink them.

Rule No.113: If dates, currants and raisins, and their juice ferment, they are pure and it is permissible to eat them, but if they intoxicate, then they are impure and prohibited to use.

Beer (Fuqa')

Rule No.114: Beer, which is prepared from barley, and is intoxicating, is impure. But barley water which is medically prepared, and is called 'Maa-ush-Shaeer', is pure.

Rule No.115: The perspiration of a person who enters the state of major ritual impurity (janabah) by a prohibited act is pure. Sexual intercourse with the wife in her menses, or in state of fasting during the month of Ramadhan, will be considered as major ritual impurity by a prohibited act.

Rule No.116: The perspiration of a camel which eats impurity, and the perspiration of every animal which is habituated to eat human impurity, is pure.

Methods of Proving Impurity

Rule No.117: The impurity of anything can be proved by three ways:

(1) One should be certain, or satisfied, that something is impure. If one suspects that something may be impure, it is not necessary to avoid it. Accordingly, eating or drinking at stalls and guest houses where the public goes to eat, and where people without scruples about impurity frequent, is allowed unless one knows that the food supplied is impure.

(2) If a reliable person who possesses, controls or manages a thing, says that it is impure. For example, if the wife, or a servant, or a maid says that a particular utensil or any other object which she handles is impure, it will be accepted as impure.

(3) If two just persons testify that a certain thing is impure, it will be considered impure. But even if one just person or a reliable person (whether he is just or not) says that something is impure, that thing should be considered impure and avoided.

Rule No.118: If a person does not know whether a thing is pure or impure because of ignorance (for example, if he does not know whether the dropping of a rat is pure or not), he should enquire from those who know. But, if he knows the rule, and doubts the nature of particular thing, like when he doubts whether a thing is blood or not, or if he does not know whether it is the blood of a mosquito or a human being, the thing is pure, and it is not necessary to investigate or enquiry about it.

Rule No.119: A thing which was originally impure, and one doubts whether it has become pure, will be considered as impure. Conversely, if a thing was originally pure, and if one doubts whether it has become impure, it will be considered pure. And it is not necessary to ascertain, even if it is possible to do so.

Rule No.120: If a person knows that out of the two vessels, or two dresses used by him, one has become impure, but cannot identify it, he should refrain from using both of them. But if he does not know whether it is his own dress, or the dress which is no longer possessed by him, or is the property of some other person, which has become impure, then it is not necessary for him to refrain from using his own dress.

How a Pure Thing Becomes Impure

Rule No.121: If a pure thing touches an impure thing and if either or both of them are so wet that the wetness of one reaches the other, the pure thing will become impure. Similarly, if the wetness of the thing which has become impure touches a third thing, that third thing will also become impure. For example, if the right hand of a person becomes impure with urine, and then, while still wet, it touches his left hand, the left hand will also become impure. Now, if the left hand touches something else and transmits wetness, that thing is made impure. If the wetness is so little that it does not affect the other thing, then the pure thing will not become impure, even if it had contacted the impurity.

Rule No.122; If a pure thing touches an impure thing and one doubts whether either or both of them were wet or not, the pure thing does not become impure.

Rule No.123: If there are two things and one does not know which of them is pure, and which is impure, and later a damp pure thing touches one of them, that thing does not become impure.

Rule No.124: If the ground, cloth, or similar things are wet, then only that part will become impure where impurity reaches, and the remaining part will remain pure.

Rule No.125: When a syrup, oil, ghee, or any similar thing is in a fluid state, in a manner that if some quantity of it is removed, it does not leave an empty gap where the removed quantity was removed from, the entire quantity will become impure immediately when even their slightest part becomes impure. But if it has solidified, and when some part of it is removed, an empty space is seen where it was removed from, then only that part will be impure which has come in contact with impurity. So, if the droppings of a rat fall on it, only that part will become impure on which the droppings have fallen, and after taking out that part, the rest will remain pure.

Rule No.126: If a fly or an insect sits on a wet, impure thing, and later sits on wet, pure thing, the pure thing will become impure, if one is sure that the insect was carrying impurity with it, and if one is not sure, then it remains pure.

Rule No.127: If a part of one's body which is perspiring becomes impure, all those parts to which the sweat reaches will become impure and where it does not reach will remain pure.

Rule No.128: If there is blood in the phlegm, or substance which comes out of the nose or throat, the part with blood will be impure, and the remaining part will be pure. Hence, if these substances come out of the mouth, or the nose, the part about which one is sure that impurity has reached, will be impure, and the part about which one is doubtful whether has reached it or not, will be considered pure.

Rule No.129: If an ewer or a vessel with a hole in its bottom is placed on impure ground, and its water ceases to flow, allowing water to collect under it, till it is seen as one with the water inside the vessel, the water in the vessel will be impure. However, if the water inside the vessel continues to flow forcefully, it will not become impure.

Rule No.130: If a thing enters the body reaching impurity, but has no trace of it when brought out of the body, it is pure. Hence, if the apparatus of enema, or its water, enters one's rectum, or a needle or knife, or any other similar thing, is driven into the body and has no trace of impurity when it is taken out later, it is not impure. Same is the case with sputum and mucus of the nose; if it contacts blood within the body, but does not have any trace of blood when it comes out of the body.

Rules Relating to Impurity

Rule No.131: To make the script of the holy Qur'an impure is undoubtedly prohibited, and if it becomes impure, it is obligatory to make it pure immediately with water. Besides the script, if any other part of the Qur'an becomes impure, as an obligatory precaution, it must be made pure.

Rule No.132: If the cover of the holy Qur'an becomes impure, causing its desecration, the cover should be made pure by washing it with water.

Rule No.133: Placing the holy Qur'an on an impurity, like, blood, or a dead body, even if it be dry, is prohibited.

Rule No.134: Writing the holy Qur'an with impure ink, even one letter of it, amounts to making it impure. And if written, it should be erased or washed off.

Rule No.135: If giving the holy Qur'an to a non-believer involves its desecration, it is prohibited to give it to him, and it is obligatory to take it back from him.

Rule No.136: If a page from the holy Qur'an, or any sacred object like a paper on which the names of Almighty Allah or the Holy Prophet or the holy Imams are written, falls in a lavatory, it is obligatory to take it out and make it pure with water, no matter if it involves a bearable hardship or what expenses it may entail. And, if it is not possible to take it out, the use of that lavatory should be discontinued till such time when one is certain that the page has dissolved and petered out. Similarly, if Turbatul Husayn (the sacred earth of Karbala, usually formed into a tablets to place one's forehead on for prostration during prayers) falls into lavatory, and it is not possible to take it out, the lavatory should not be used until one becomes sure that it (Turbatul Husayn) has ceased to exist, and no trace of it is present there.

Rule No.137: It is prohibited to eat or drink, or make others eat or drink, something which has become impure. It is also not allowed to give such a thing to a child, or an insane person. And if a child or an insane person eats or drinks an impure thing on his own accord, or makes food impure with his impure hands before consuming it, it is necessary to stop him from doing so.

Rule No.138: An impure thing, even if it is something to eat which can be made pure by washing, when it is sold or borrowed, there is no harm in informing the buyer or the borrower about its impurity.

Rule No.139: If a person sees someone eat or drink something impure, or pray with an impure dress, it is not necessary to admonish him.

Rule No.140: If a place or carpet of a man's house is impure, and if he sees that the wet body or dress or anything else of his visitor touch the impure thing, and if there is a possibility of the impurity reaching food, then it is necessary to inform them.

Rule No.141: If the host comes to know during the meal that the food is impure, he should inform the guests about it. But if one of the guests becomes aware of it, it is not necessary for him to inform others about it. However, if his dealings with the other guests are such, that he himself may become impure, or be involved in impurity if they became impure, he should inform them after the meal.

Rule No.142: If a borrowed object becomes impure and its use requires purity (e.g. utensils used for eating), the borrower must inform the owner; but if that thing is like clothing it is not necessary to inform him, although it is known that he will offer prayer with it. If a person offering prayer in an impure dress does not know about the impurity of his dress, his prayer is valid.

Rule No.143: If a child says that a thing is impure, or that he has washed and made it pure, his words should not be accepted. But, if he is about to attain the age of puberty, and assures that he has washed and made it pure or says that a thing is impure; his word should be accepted if the thing is normally in his charge, and if he is reliable.

The Purifiers (Mutahhiraat)

Anything by which impurities can be removed is a purifier.

Rule No.144: There are twelve things which make impure objects pure, they are called purifiers:

(1) Water

(2) Earth

(3) The Sun

(4) Transformation (Istihala)

(5) Change (Inqilab)

(6) Transfer (Intiqal)

(7) Islam

(8) Subjection (Taba'iyat)

(9) Removal of original impurity

(10) Confining (Istibra) of animal which feeds on impurity

(11) Ascertaining Purity in the Absence of the Original Muslim Owner

(12) Draining of the usual quantity of blood from the slaughtered body of an animal.

I. Water

Rule No.145: Water makes impure things pure, when the following four conditions are fulfilled:

(1) The water should be unmixed (mutlaq). Hence an impure thing cannot be made pure with mixed water (mudhaf) like rose-water, or melon-water etc.

(2) The water should be pure.

(3) The water should not turn into mixed water while the impure thing is being washed. Furthermore, the smell, colour, or taste of the impurity should not exist after the final washing, but if change occurs during earlier washings, there is no harm in it. For example, if a thing is washed with Kurr water or under-Kurr water, and in order to make it pure it is necessary to wash it twice, it will become pure if the changes in the water do not occur in the second washing. Any changes occurring in the first washing would not matter.

(4) Small particles of impurity should not remain behind in an impure thing after it has been washed. Other conditions for making an impure thing pure by water less than Kurr will be mentioned below.

Rule No.146: As an obligatory precaution, the interior of an impure vessel or utensil must be washed three times if less than Kurr water is used, but washed once if Kurr or running water is used. If a dog drinks water or any other liquid from a utensil, the utensil should be first scrubbed with earth (and adding some quantity of water), and as a precaution the earth should be pure. After washing off the earth, it should be washed once with Kurr or twice with lesser water. Similarly, if the dog licks a utensil, as an obligatory precaution, it should be scrubbed with earth before washing. And if the saliva of a dog falls into the utensil, it is not necessary to scrub with earth.

Rule No.147: If the mouth of a utensil which a dog has licked, is narrow, dust should be thrown into it and after adding some quantity of water, it should be shaken vigorously, so that the dust may reach all parts of it. Thereafter, the utensil should be washed in the manner mentioned above.

Rule No.148: If a utensil is licked by a pig, or if it drinks any liquid from it, or in which a field-mouse has died, then it should be washed seven times with running water, or Kurr or lesser water. It will not be necessary to scour it with dust.

Rule No.149: A utensil which becomes impure because of alcoholic beverage should be washed three times, with no difference between Kurr, lesser, or running water.

Rule No.150: If an earthenware has been made of impure clay, or impure water has penetrated in it, it should be put into Kurr or running water, so that wherever water reaches, it will be pure. And if it is intended to make its interior pure it should be left in Kurr or running water for such time, that the water would penetrate into its entire structure. And if the earthenware is oily or moist, preventing water from reaching its inner parts, then it should be allowed to dry up, before it is put in Kurr or running water.

Rule No.151: An impure utensil can be made pure with under-Kurr water in two ways:

(1) The utensil should be filled up with water and emptied three times.

(2) Some quantity of water is poured in it, and then the utensil is vigorously shaken, so that the water reaches all impure parts before it is spilled. This should be done three times.

Rule No.152: If a large pot like a cauldron etc. becomes impure, it will be pure if it is filled up with water three times, and emptied every time. Alternatively, if water is poured from above three times, in such a way that it reaches all its sides, and then the water which collects at the bottom is drawn out every time, it will become pure. But it is obligatory to wash the vessel used for drawing out water, when being used for the second and third time.

Rule No.153: If impure copper and similar things are melted, and washed with water, their exterior becomes pure.

Rule No.154; If a baking oven (Tannur) becomes impure with urine, and if water is poured into it twice from above in a manner that it reaches all its sides, the oven will become pure. And if the oven has become impure due to something other than urine, then the impurity should be eliminated first, and thereafter, water will be poured once into it as described. It is better that a pit or a hole is dug at the bottom, so that water collects there. That water is then drawn out, and the pit is filled with pure earth.

Rule No.155: If an impure thing is immersed once in Kurr or running water, in such a way that water reaches all its impure parts, it becomes pure. And in the case of a carpet or dress, it is necessary to squeeze or wring it or press it with feet if water does not reach without doing so. And when body or dress is impure because of urine, it must be washed twice even in Kurr water.

Rule No.156: When a thing which has become impure with urine, is to be made pure with water less than Kurr, it should be poured once, and as water flows off eliminating all the traces of urine, and then pouring water twice over it, the thing will become pure. But if dress or carpet has become impure because of urine, it must be squeezed after each washing, till the water remaining in it runs out.

Rule No.157: If anything becomes impure with the urine of a suckling child, who has not yet started taking solid food, and the thing will be pure if water is poured over it once, reaching all parts which had been impure. As a recommended precaution, water should be poured over it a second time. And if it is a carpet or dress etc. it will not be necessary to squeeze it.

Rule No.158: If anything becomes impure with impurity other than urine, it becomes pure by first removing the impurity and then pouring under Kurr water once, reaching all the parts which are impure and allowing it to flow off. But, if it is a dress etc., it should be squeezed so that the remaining water should flow off.

Rule No.159: If it is proposed to make a mat woven with thread pure, it is necessary to wring or squeezed in whatever way possible, even by pressing it under the feet, till water in it runs off.

Rule No.160: If the exterior of wheat, rice, soap etc. becomes impure, it becomes pure by dipping it in Kurr or running water. But, if their interior becomes impure, they will be pure if Kurr or running water reaches the internal parts.

Rule No.161: If one doubts whether impure water has seeped into the interior of soap or not, its interior will be considered pure.

Rule No.162: If the outer part of rice, meat, or any other similar thing becomes impure, it may be placed in a bowl etc., and then water is poured on it and then the bowl is emptied; this should be done three times. The objects in it become pure and the bowl will also become pure. If one wishes to make a dress or similar thing pure in a container and squeezing it is also necessary, one will pour water, and then press and squeeze the object and tilt the container each time, so that the remaining water pours off.

Rule No.163; If an impure dress, which has been dyed with indigo or with any similar dye, is dipped into Kurr or running water, or washed with less than Kurr water, it will become pure only if mixed water does not come out at the time of wringing or squeezing.

Rule No.164: If a dress is washed with Kurr-water or running water, and later, for example, black mud is found stuck on it, the dress will be pure if one does not suspect that the black mud has prevented water from reaching the dress.

Rule No.165: If slush of mud or ashnan (a kind of grass used to clean clothes) is seen on dress etc. after being made pure with water, it will be considered pure. However, if impure water has reached the interior of the mud or ashnan, then its exterior will be pure and its interior will be impure.

Rule No.166; An impure thing does not become pure unless the impurity is removed from it, but there is no harm if the colour or smell of the impurity remains in it. So, if blood is removed from a cloth, and the cloth is made pure with water, it will become pure even if the colour of blood remains on it. But if, on account of the smell or colour, it becomes certain, or seems probable that some particles of impurity are still present in the cloth etc., it will remain impure.

Rule No.167: If impurity of the body is removed in Kurr or running water, the body will become pure, and it is not necessary to walk in and out of water to achieve two washings. If impure food remains between the teeth, and water is taken in the mouth and moved in such a way that it reaches the all parts of the impure food, the food becomes pure.

Rule No.168: If the impure hair of head and face is washed with under Kurr-water, it is not necessary to squeeze them for remaining water to flow off.

Rule No.169: If a part of the impure body or dress is washed with under-Kurr water, the parts adjacent to it where water usually reaches will become pure, when the impure part becomes pure. It means that it is not necessary to wash those sides independently, as the impure part and parts around it become pure together. And similar is the case, if a pure thing is placed by the side of an impure thing, and water is poured on both of them. Hence, if water is poured on all fingers while trying to make one impure finger pure, and impure as well as pure water reaches them all during washing, they will all become pure together.

Rule No.170: Meat or fat which becomes impure can be made pure with water like all other things. Likewise, if the body or dress has a little grease on it, which does not prevent water from reaching it, it can be made pure with water.

Rule No.171: If a utensil or one's body is impure, but also so greasy that water cannot reach it, one should first remove the grease, so that water may reach one's body, or the utensil before making it pure.

Rule No.172: Tap water which is connected with Kurr-water is considered to be Kurr.

Rule No.173: If a person washes a thing with water, and becomes sure that it has become pure, but doubts later whether or not he had removed the impurity from it, he should wash it again, and ensure that the impurity has been removed.

Rule No.174: If the ground which absorbs water (e.g. land on the surface of which there is fine sand or gravel) becomes impure, it can be made pure with under-Kurr water, but only if the water flows off; otherwise only its exterior will be pure.

Rule No.175: If the floor which is made of stones or bricks or other hard ground, in which water is not absorbed, becomes impure, it can be made pure with under-Kurr water, but it is necessary that so much water is poured on it that it begins to flow. The water which flows out will be impure. Hence it is better to use kurr or running water.

Rule No.176: If the exterior of salt-stone or something resembling it becomes impure, it can be made pure with under-Kurr water.

Rule No.177: If impure sugar or syrup is turned into solid cubes, or granules, it will not become pure if it is immersed in Kurr or running water.

II. Earth

Rule No.178: The earth makes the sole of one's feet and shoes pure, provided that the following three conditions are fulfilled:

(1) The earth should be pure.

(2) The earth should be dry.

(3) If impurity, like blood or urine or something which has become impure, like impure clay, is stuck on the sole of a foot or a shoe, it will become pure only if it is cleared by walking on earth, or by rubbing the foot or the shoe against it. Walking on carpets, mats, green grass will not make the sole of feet or shoes pure.

Rule No.179: It is problematic that by walking over a tar road, or a wooden floor the impure sole of feet and shoes become purified.

Rule No.180: In order to make the sole of one's feet or shoe pure, it is better that one should walk a distance of at least fifteen arm-lengths or more, even if the impurity disappears by walking a lesser distance, or by rubbing one's foot on earth.

Rule No.181: It is not necessary that the impure sole of one's feet or shoe be made wet. They become pure by walking on earth, even if they are dry.

Rule No.182: When the impure sole of one's foot or shoe becomes pure by walking on earth, the parts adjacent to it, which are usually blotched with mud, become pure.

Rule No.183: If a person moves on his hands and knees, and his hands or knees become impure, it is problematic that they become pure by such movement. Similarly, the end of a stick, the bottom of an artificial leg, the shoe of quadruped and the wheels of a car or a cart etc. would not be pure.

Rule No.184: If after walking, the smell or colour of the impurity or its invisible particles remains in the sole of the feet or the shoe, there is no harm in it, although the recommended precaution is that one should walk so much, that these things also disappear.

Rule No.185: The inner part of the shoe does not become pure by walking, and similarly it is problematic that by walking the under part of the socks becomes pure.

III. The Sun

Rule No.186: The sun makes the earth, building, and the walls and doors, windows and nails which are fitted purified, provided the following five conditions are fulfilled:

(1) The impure thing should be sufficiently wet, and if it is dry, it should be made wet so that the sun dries it up.

(2) If the impurity is present on that thing, it should be removed from it before it is dried by the sun.

(3) Nothing should intervene between the impure thing and the sun. Therefore, if the rays fall on an impure thing from behind a curtain or a cloud etc., and make it dry, the thing will not become pure. But, there is no harm if the cloud is so thin that it does not serve as an impediment, between the impure thing and the sun.

(4) Only the sun should make the impure thing dry. So, if an impure thing is jointly dried by the wind and the sun, it will not become pure. However, it would not matter if the wind blows lightly, and it may not be said that it has had any share in making the impure thing dry.

(5) The sun should dry up the whole impure part of the building all at once. If the sun dries the surface of the impure earth or building first, and later on dries the inner part, only the surface will become pure, and the inner portion will remain impure.

Rule No.187: It is problematic that an impure mat will be purified by the sun, but the sun purifies the trees and grass.

Rule No.188: If the sun shines on impure earth, and one doubts later whether the earth was wet or not at that time or whether the wetness dried up because of the sunshine or not, the earth will remain impure. Similarly, if one doubts whether impurity had been removed from the earth before sunshine, or whether there was any impediment preventing direct sunshine, the earth will remain impure.

Rule No.189: If the sun shines on one side of an impure wall and as a consequence of it, the other side of the wall also dries up, it is most likely that both the sides will be pure.

IV. Transformation (Istihala)

Rule No.190: If an impure thing undergoes such a change that it assumes the category of a pure thing, it becomes pure. For example, if an impure wood burns and is reduced to ashes, or a dog falls in a salt-marsh which is later transformed into salt, it becomes pure. But a thing does not become pure if its essence or category does not change (i.e. if impure wheat is ground into flour, or is used for baking bread, it does not become pure.

Rule No.191: Any earthenware which is made of impure clay, is impure, and coal derived from impure wood is also impure.

Rule No.192: An impure thing about which it is not known whether it has undergone any transformation or not, remains impure.

V. Change (Inqilab)

Rule No.193: Any liquor which becomes vinegar by itself, or by mixing it with vinegar or salt, becomes pure.

Rule No.194: If wine which is prepared from impure grapes etc. is placed in a pure utensil and it later changes into vinegar, it becomes pure. If any impurity reaches it without touching the utensil and getting mixed in it, and if it turns into vinegar, purification of vinegar after change is problematic. As a precaution, it is impure and its change into vinegar does not make it pure.

Rule No.195: Vinegar which is prepared from impure grapes, raisins and dates is impure.

Rule No.196: If tiny stems and stalks from grapes or dates are added to prepare vinegar, or if cucumber and brinjal is added before it turns into vinegar, there will be no harm, except if it becomes an intoxicant before becoming vinegar.

Rule No.197: If the juice of grapes ferments by itself or by being heated, it becomes prohibited. However, if it is boiled on fire or heated so much that only 1/3 part of it is left, it becomes permissible.

Rule No.198; If 2/3 of the grape juice gets reduced without fermentation, and the remainder ferments, it will be prohibited.

Rule No.199: The juice of grapes about which it is not known whether fermentation has taken place or not, is permitted. But if it ferments, and it is not known that it is reduced to 2/3 then it will not be permissible.

Rule No.200: If there are some ripe grapes in a bunch of unripe grapes, and the juice of that bunch is not commonly known as "grape juice", it will be permissible even if it ferments.

Rule No.201: If one grape falls in something which is boiling with heat, and if it ferments, but does not get dissolved in it, eating that grape alone will be prohibited.

Rule No.202: If juice of grapes is being cooked in several pots by using the same spoon for the pot which has boiled, and the one which has not, that spoon will make the unboiled pot impure.

Rule No.203: A thing, about which one does not know whether it is the juice of unripe grapes or ripe grapes, will be permissible, if it ferments.

VI. Transfer (Intiqal)

Rule No.204: If the blood of a human being, or of an animal whose blood gushes forth when its large vein is cut, is sucked by an insect, normally known to be bloodless, and it becomes part of its body, the blood becomes pure. The same is the case with other impurities. This process is called transfer or Intiqal.

But when a blood-sucking leech sucks human blood during some treatment, it will be impure, because it is not considered as part of its body – it is considered as human blood.

Rule No.205: If one kills a mosquito which has sat on one's body, and blood comes out, and one does not know if the blood which came out of the mosquito’s body is the sucked blood from his body or it is mosquito’s blood, it will be considered pure. And if it is known that it is the blood which the mosquito had sucked from his body but now treated as mosquito’s blood, it will also considered pure. But if the time gap between its sucking and it being killed is very small and generally it is considered as human blood or if it is not known that generally it will be considered as human blood or mosquito’s blood, it is impure.

VII. Islam

Rule No.206: If an unbeliever testifies Oneness of Allah, and the Prophethood of Prophet Muhammad, in whatever language, he becomes a Muslim. And just as he was impure before, he becomes pure after becoming a Muslim, and his body, along with the saliva and the sweat, is pure. But if he has any impurity in his body at the time of embracing Islam, it should be removed, and then washed. In fact, that part should be washed even if the impurity had been removed earlier, as per obligatory precaution.

Rule No.207: If before an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, his wet dress touched his body, and if it is not on his body at the time of embracing Islam, it is impure. In fact as an obligatory precaution, it should be avoided if it is on his body at the time of embracing Islam.

Rule No.208: If an unbeliever professes his belief in Islam, he will be pure even if it is not known whether he has embraced Islam sincerely or not. The same order applies even if it is known that he has not sincerely accepted Islam, if his words or deeds do not betray anything which may be contrary to the confirmation by him of the Oneness of Allah, and of Prophet Muhammad being Prophet of Allah.

VIII. Subjection (Taba'iyah)

Rule No.209; Taba'iyah means that an impure thing becomes pure, in subjection of another thing becoming pure.

Rule No.210: When wine is transformed into vinegar, its container, up to the level the wine reached on account of fermentation, will become pure. And if some cloth or any other thing was placed on the wine and became impure, it will also be purified after transformation. But, if the back part of the container became impure because of contact with wine, as an obligatory precaution, it should be avoided, even after wine has transformed into vinegar.

Rule No.211; The child of an unbeliever becomes pure by subjection in two cases:

(1) If an unbeliever embraces Islam, his child in subjection to him becomes pure. Similarly, if the mother, paternal grandfather, or paternal grandmother of a child embraces Islam, the child will become pure.

(2) If the child of an unbeliever is captured by a Muslim, and his father, paternal grandfather or maternal grandfather is not with him, he becomes pure, on the condition that if it has attained the age of understanding and discerning, it does not express disbelief.

Rule No.212: The plank or slab of stone on which a dead body is given its ritual bath and the cloth with which his private parts are covered, and the hands of the person who gives the bath and all things washed, together with the dead body, become pure when the bath is over.

Rule No.213: When a person washes something with water to make it pure, his hands washed along with that thing will be pure when the thing becomes pure.

Rule No.214: If cloth etc. is washed with under-Kurr water and is squeezed as usual, allowing water to flow off, the water which still remains in it is pure.

Rule No.215: When an impure utensil is washed with under-Kurr water, the small quantity of water left in it after spilling the water of final wash, is pure.

IX. Removal of Impurity

Rule No.216: If the body of an animal is stained with an impurity like blood or with something which has become impure (i.e. impure water), its body becomes pure when the impurity disappears. Similarly, the inner parts of the human body (i.e. inner parts of mouth or nose) become pure after the impurity has disappeared. For example, if blood comes out from the gums and vanishes by mixing in saliva, then it is not necessary to wash the inner mouth. But if dentures become impure, as a precaution, they should be washed.

Rule No.217: If food remains between the teeth, and blood emerges within the mouth, if it is not known that the food comes contact with that blood the food will remains pure, otherwise it will be impure.

Rule No.218: Those parts of the lips and the eyes which overlap when shut, and the parts of body about which one is not sure whether they are internal or external, must be washed with water if they meet with external impurity.

Rule No.219: If impure dust settles on a cloth or carpet, but is shaken off and thereafter, something wet touches that cloth etc. that thing will not become impure.

X. Confining (Istibra) of an Animal Which Eats Impurity

Rule No.220. The dung and urine of an animal which is habituated to eating human excrement, is impure, and it could be made pure by subjecting it to "Istibra"; that is, it should be prevented from eating impurity, and pure food should be given to it, till such time that it may no more be considered an animal which eats impurity.

As an obligatory precaution, the following animals should be prevented from eating impurity for the period specified:

(1) Camel for 40 days

(2) Cow for 20 days

(3) Goat/Sheep for 10 days

(4) Water-fowl for 5 or 7 days

(5) Domestic hen for 3 days

If after completing the specified period they are still known as eaters of impurity, then they should be prevented from eating impurity till the animals cease to be considered as eaters of impurity.

XI. Ascertaining Purity in the Absence of the Original Muslim Owner

Rule No.221: When a body, dress, household utensil, carpet or any similar thing which has been in the possession of a Muslim becomes impure, and thereafter that Muslim disappears, the things will be pure if the following six conditions are fulfilled:

(1) That Muslim should believe in the impurity of an object which made his dress impure. For example, if his dress with its wetness touches an infidel, and if he believes the infidel to be impure, his dress will be considered pure after his disappearance.

(2) That Muslim should know that his body or dress has touched an impure thing.

(3) That the man should have been seen using that thing for a purpose which requires it being pure. For example, he should have been seen offering prayers with that dress.

(4) There should be an expectation that the Muslim knows that the condition for the act he wants to perform with it is to be pure. For example, if he does not know that the dress of one who offers prayers should be pure, and he offers prayers with an impure dress, that dress cannot be considered to be pure.

(5) If there is an expectation that he has washed that thing, and if it becomes certain that he has not washed it, the thing will be considered impure. Furthermore the Muslim should be conscious of the difference between impure and pure, and that he should not be careless about it. If he is careless, his things will not be considered pure.

(6) That the Muslim should be adult and can differentiate between purity and impurity.

Rule No.222: If a person is certain that a thing which was impure has become pure, or if two just persons testify showing why it is pure, then that thing is pure. And similarly, when a person who possesses the impure thing says that it has become pure, or when a Muslim has washed the impure thing with water, even if it may not be known whether or not he has washed it properly, the thing will be considered pure. It is also possible that the evidence of one just or reliable person about the purity of thing is sufficient.

Rule No.223: If a person undertakes to wash and make pure the dress of another person and confirms having washed it, and if the other person is satisfied with what he is told, the dress is pure.

Rule No.224: If a person is in such a mental state that he can never be certain about an impure thing becoming pure, he should follow his own idea.

XII. Draining the Blood of a Slaughtered Animal in Normal Quantity

Rule No.225: As stated earlier, if an animal is slaughtered in accordance with the rules prescribed by Islam, and blood flows out of its body in normal quantity, the blood which still remains in the body of the animal is pure.

Rule No.226: The above rule is applicable only to an animal whose meat is permitted to eat, and does not apply to an animal whose meat is prohibited. In fact, as a recommended precaution, it does not apply to the prohibited parts of the body of an animal, whose meat is permitted to eat.

Rules Relating to Utensils

Rule No.227: If a utensil is made of the hide of a dog or a pig or a dead animal (not slaughtered lawfully), it is prohibited to eat or drink anything from that utensil, if its impurity is caused by wetness. Also, that utensil should not be used for ablution and ritual baths, and for other purposes for which only pure things should be used. The obligatory precaution is that the skin of a dog, or pig or a dead animal, should not at all be used, even if it is not in the form of a utensil.

Rule No.228: It is prohibited to use gold and silver utensils for eating and drinking purposes, and as an obligatory precaution, their general use is also prohibited. However, it is not prohibited to have them in possession or for decorating the room etc. But it is better to avoid them, as a precautionary measure. Similarly, it is not prohibited to manufacture gold and silver vessels, or to buy and sell them for possession or decoration, but it is better to avoid.

Rule No.229: If the clip of a tea-glass (istakaan) made of gold or silver is classified as a utensil after separating it from glass, it will be equivalent to a tea-glass made of gold or silver, and it will be prohibited to use, whether it is detached or attached to the tea-glass. And if it (the clip) is not classified as utensil, there is no harm in using it.

Rule No.230: There is no harm in using vessels which are gold-plated or silver-plated.

Rule No.231: There is no harm in using a utensil which is made of an alloy mixed with gold and silver, if the proportion of alloy is such that the utensil cannot be said to be made of gold or silver.

Rule No.232: There is no harm if a person transfers food from the utensil made of gold or silver into another utensil with the intention that it is not permissible to eat or drink in the gold or silver utensils, provided that the later utensil is not considered as part of the package.

Rule No.233: There is no harm in using the tip of the pipe used in Huqqa, or the scabbard of a sword, or knife, or the frame of the Holy Qur'an made of gold or silver. However, the recommended precaution is that the receptacles of perfume, or kohl, or opium made of gold or silver should not be used.

Rule No.234: There is no harm in eating or drinking from gold and silver utensils if one is helpless and has no alternative, but he should not eat or drink to his fill.

Rule No.235: There is no harm in using a utensil about which it is not known whether it is made of gold or silver, or something else. As an obligatory precaution, the utensils used in preparation and drinking of wine must be avoided.