Ablution

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Ablution

Rule No.236: In ablution, it is obligatory to wash the face and hands, and to wipe the front portion of the head and the upper part of both feet.

Rule No.237: The length of the face should be washed from the hairline to the farthest end of the chin, and its breadth should be washed to the part covered between the thumb and the middle finger. If even a small part of this area is left out, the ablution will be void. Thus, in order to ensure that the prescribed part has been fully washed, one should also wash a small area of the adjacent parts.

Rule No.238: If the hands or the face of a person are larger or smaller than normal, he should observe how people normally wash their faces, and follow accordingly. Also, if he has hair on part of his forehead, or the frontal part of his head is bald, he should wash his forehead as is usually washed by the people.

Rule No.239: If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in the eyebrows, and corners of his eyes, and on his lips, which does not permit water to reach them, and if that suspicion is reasonable, he should examine it before performing ablution, and remove any such thing if it is there.

Rule No.240: If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair, one should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, and it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath the hair.

Rule No.241: If a person doubts whether his skin is visible from under the hair of the face or not, he should, as an obligatory precaution, wash his hair, and also make the water reach the skin.

Rule No.242: While performing ablution, it is not obligatory that one should wash the inner parts of the nose, nor of the lips and eyes which cannot be seen when they close. However, in order to ensure that all parts have been washed, it is obligatory that some portion of these parts (i.e. inner parts of nose, lips and eyes) are also included. If a person did not know how much of the area should be washed, and does not remember whether he has washed those parts in the ablution already performed, he should perform the ablution again for the prayer he has offered if there is time. If there is no time, there is no need to offer its Qadha.

Rule No.243: The face and hands should be washed from above downwards, and if one washes the opposite way, his ablution will be void.

Rule No.244: If a person makes his hand wet, and passes it over his face and hands and if water flows on the face or the hands, it will be sufficient.

Rule No.245: After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.

Rule No.246: In order to ensure that each elbow has been washed thoroughly, one should include some portion above the elbow in washing.

Rule No.247: If before washing his face, a person has washed his hands up to the wrist, he should, while performing ablution, wash them up to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes them only up to the wrist, his ablution is void.

Rule No.248; While performing ablution, it is obligatory to wash the face and the hands once, and it is recommended to wash them twice. Washing them three or more times is prohibited. As regards to which washing should be treated as the first, it will depend upon the intention of the person performing the ablution. So, if he pours water on his face ten times with the intention of the first washing, there is no harm, but when he will then wash with the intention of ablution, it will be called the first time. But if he washes three times with the intention of washing thrice, then his third wash will be illegal and his ablution will be void.

Rule No.249: After washing both the hands while performing ablution, one should wipe the front part of his head with the wetness which is in his hand; the obligatory precaution is that he should wipe it with his right hand, from the upper part, downwards.

Rule No.250: The part on which wiping should be performed, is one fourth of the frontal part of the head above the forehead. It is sufficient to wipe however and wherever one likes on this part of the head, although the recommended precaution is that the length should be equal to one finger and its breadth should be equal to three joined fingers.

Rule No.251: It is not necessary that the wiping of the head should be performed on its skin. It is also in order if a man wipes the hair on the front of his head. However, if the hair are so long that when combed they fall on his face, or on other parts of his head, he should wipe his hand on the roots of his hair, or part the hair and wipe the skin. If a person collects such long hair on the front side of his head and wipes them, such a wiping would be void.

Rule No.252: After wiping the head, one should wipe the feet with the moisture present in one's hands, from any toe of the foot up to the raised part of the top of the foot. But the obligatory precaution is that one should wipe up to the joint of the foot. As an obligatory precaution, the right foot should be wiped with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

Rule No.253: Wiping of the feet can have any breadth, but it is better that the breadth of the wiping should be equal to three joined fingers, and it is still better that the wiping of the entire foot is done with the entire hand.

Rule No.254; As an obligatory precaution, at the time of wiping the foot, one should place one's hand on the toes and then draw it towards the raised part or the joint, or that one should place the hand on the joint and draw it towards the toes. One should not simply place the whole hand on the foot and pull it a little.

Rule No.255: While wiping one's head and feet, it is necessary to move one's hand on them, and if the feet and head are moved leaving the hand stationary, ablution would be void. However, there is no harm if the head and feet move slightly, while the hand is being moved for wiping.

Rule No.256: The parts of wiping should be dry, and if they are so wet that the wetness of the palm of the hand has no effect on them, the wiping will be void. However, there is no harm if the wetness on those parts is so insignificant that the moisture of the palm overcomes it.

Rule No.257: If wetness disappears in the palm, it cannot be made wet with fresh water. In that situation, the person performing ablution should obtain moisture from his beard. If he obtains moisture from any part other than the beard, it is problematic.

Rule No.258: If the wetness of palm is just enough for wiping the head, then one should wipe the head first, and for the wiping of feet, the wetness should be obtained from the beard.

Rule No.259; Wiping performed on socks or shoes is not permissible. But if one is unable to remove his socks or shoes because of severe cold, or fear of life, or a robber, he should perform dry ablution. And if a person is under Taqiyya (hiding one's faith), he can perform wiping on his socks and shoes and then perform dry ablution also.

Rule No.260: If the upper part of his feet is impure, and it cannot also be washed for wiping, one should perform dry ablution.

Ablution by Immersion

Rule No.261: Ablution by immersion means that one should dip one's face and hands into water, with the intention of performing ablution.

Rule No.262: Even while performing ablution by immersion, one should wash one's face and hand downwards from above. Hence, when a person dips his face and hands in water with the intention of ablution, he should dip his face in water from the forehead and his hands from elbows. But he should make the intention of ablution while drawing out his face and hands from water.

Rule No.263: There is no harm in performing ablution of some parts by immersion, and of others in the usual way.

Recommended Supplications

Rule No.264: It has been recommended that a person performing ablution should recite the following supplication when he sees water:

“Bismillahi wa billahi wal hamdu lil lahil lazi ja'alal ma'a tahura, wa lam yaj’alhu najisa.”

(I begin my ablution by the Name of Allah and by Allah. All praise is due to Allah, Who made water purifying, and not impure)

While washing the hands before performing ablution, one should say:

“Allahummaj’alni minat-tawwabina waj’alni minal-mutatah-hirin.”

(O Lord! Make me of those who repent and make me of those who purify themselves)

While washing the mouth one should say:

“Allahumma laqqini hujjati yawma alqaka wa atliq lisani bizikrika.”

(O Lord! Dictate to me the principles of faith on the Day I meet You, and make my tongue fluent with Your remembrance)

While washing the nose one should say:

“Allahumma la tuharrim 'alaya reehal jannati waj'alni mim man yashummu reeha ha wa rawha ha wa tiba ha.”

(O Lord! Do not deprive me of the fragrance of Paradise, and make me of those who smell its fragrance and aroma and perfume).

While washing the face, one should say:

“Allahumma bayyiz wajhi yawma taswaddu feehil wujuh wala tusawwid waj-hi yawma tabyazzul wujuh.”

(O Lord! Make my face bright on the Day when the faces will turn dark. Do not darken my face on the Day when the faces are bright).

While pouring water over the right elbow, one should say:

“Allahumma a’tini kitabi bi yamini wal khulda fil jinani bi yasari wa haasibni hisaban yasira.”

(O Lord! Give my book of deeds in my right hand, and a permanent stay in Paradise on my left, and make my reckoning an easy one).

While pouring water over the left elbow, one should say:

“Allahumma la tu’tini kitabi bishimali wala min wara'i zahri wala taj’alha maghlulatan ila unuqi wa a'uzu bika min muqatta'atin niran.”

(O Lord! Do not give my book of deeds in my left hand, nor from behind my back, nor chain it to my neck. I seek refuge in You from the Hell-fire).

While performing the wiping of the head, one should say:

“Allahumma ghash-shini bi rahmatika wa barakatika wa 'afwik”

(O Lord! Cover me with Your Mercy, Blessings and Forgiveness).

While performing the wiping of the feet, one should say:

“Allahumma thabbitni alas-sirati yawma tazillu fihil aqdam. Waj'al sa'yi fi ma yurzeeka 'anni, ya zal jalali wal ikram.”

(O Lord! Keep me firm on the Bridge (to Paradise) on the Day when the feet will slip, and help me in my efforts to do things which will please You, O' Glorious and Mighty!)

Conditions for the Validity of Ablution

Following are the conditions for a correct ablution:

The first condition is that the water should be pure.

The second condition is that the water should not be mixed.

Rule No.265: It is not in order to perform ablution with impure or mixed water, even if one may not be aware of its being impure or mixed, or may have forgotten about it. And if one has offered prayers with that ablution, one should repeat that prayers with a valid ablution.

Rule No.266: If a person does not have any water to perform ablution except that which is murky with clay, he should perform dry ablution and pray only if a short time is left for prayers; and if he has enough time at his disposal, he should wait till the water becomes clear (and the dirt settles at the bottom), and then perform ablution with it.

The third condition is that the water should be permissible for use (Mubah).

Rule No.267: To perform ablution with usurped water, or with water about which one does not know whether the owner would allow its use, is prohibited, and ablution will be void.

Rule No.268: If a person does not know whether the pool or tank of water at a school has been dedicated to the general public, or exclusively to the students of the school, there is no harm in doing ablution there, provided that people usually do so at that place.

Rule No.269: If a person who does not wish to offer prayers in a particular mosque, is not aware whether its pool has been dedicated to the general public, or specifically to those who offer prayers in that mosque, it is not in order for him to perform ablution with the water of the pool of that mosque. However, if people who do not pray in that mosque usually perform ablution there, he can perform ablution from that pool. Performing ablution from the pools of the inns and hotels etc. by persons who are not residing there is valid if the other persons who are not staying there usually perform ablution with that water.

Rule No.270: There is no harm if a person performs ablution in the water flowing in big canals, even if he does not know whether the owner of that canal would allow it. But, if the owner of the canal prohibits performing ablution with that water, or if it is known that owner is disagreeable about it, or if he is a minor, or an insane person, or these canals are under the possession of an oppressor, then it is not permissible to perform ablution in it. But as for canals of villages or such places, if the general public uses the water from them, then there is no harm in using the water for such canals for ablution or for any other purpose, even if the owner is a minor or is insane. Moreover, the owners of such canals do not have a right to prohibit the people from using the water of the canal.

Rule No.271: If a person forgets that the water has been usurped, and performs ablution with it, his ablution is in order. But, if a person has usurped the water himself, and then forgets about it, his ablution with that water will be void.

The fourth condition is that the container of the water used by a person for ablution, should be permissible for him to use (Mubah).

The fifth condition is that, as an obligatory precaution, the container of the water used for ablution should not be made of gold or silver.

Rule No.272: If the water for ablution is in a usurped container or in containers of gold and silver, and there is no other water available, he should transfer that water lawfully into another container, and then do ablution. If it is not possible to do so, he should perform dry ablution. However, if he has other water, he should use that for ablution. And in either case, if he acts against the rule (committing a sin) and performs ablution by pouring water on the parts of ablution with hand etc. which was either in a usurped container or in a container made of gold or silver, his ablution will be in order, even he has other permissible water available for use. But if he performs ablution by way of immersion in a gold or silver container, his ablution is void.

Rule No.273: A pool of water, which has a usurped stone or brick within it, can be used for ablution if drawing water from it would not in any way amount to using that brick or stone. If it amounts to that, then drawing water will be prohibited, but the ablution will be valid.

Rule No.274: If a pool or a canal is dug in the courtyards of the shrines of the Imams (A.S.), or their descendents which was previously a graveyard, there is no harm in performing ablution with the water of that pool or canal if he did not know that the land was previously dedicated (by Waqf) as a graveyard.

The sixth condition is that parts of the body on which ablution is performed should be pure at the time of washing and wiping.

Rule No.275: If the place which has been already washed or wiped in ablution becomes impure before the completion of the ablution, it will be valid.

Rule No.276: If any other part of the body other than the parts of ablution is impure, the ablution will be in order. However, if the outlet of urine or stool has not been made pure, the obligatory precaution is that one should make them pure first, and then perform ablution.

Rule No.277: If any one part of ablution was impure, and after performing ablution one doubts whether he washed it before ablution or not, if he was not attentive at that time, his ablution will be void. And if he knows or doubts whether he was attentive or not, his ablution will be valid. But he should wash the part which was impure.

Rule No.278: If a person has a cut or wound on his face or hands, and the blood from it does not stop, and if water is not harmful for him, he should, after washing the healthy parts of that limb in proper sequence, put the place of wound or cut in Kurr-water or running water, and press it a little so that the blood may stop. Then he should pass his finger on the wound or cut, within the water, from above downwards, so that water may flow on it. This way his ablution will be in order.

The seventh condition is that the person doing ablution should have sufficient time at his disposal for ablution and prayer.

Rule No.279: If the time is so short that by doing ablution the entire prayers or a part of it will have to be offered after its time, he should perform dry ablution. But if he feels that the time required for dry ablution and ablution is equal, then he should do ablution.

Rule No.280: If a person who should have performed dry ablution owing to little time for prayer at his disposal, performs ablution with the intention of Qurbah, or for any recommended (mustahab) act, such as reading the holy Qur'an, his ablution is in order. But if he knows the rule and performs ablution for the same prayer intentionally, his ablution will be void.

The eighth condition is that one should perform ablution with the intention of Qurbah i.e. to obey the orders of Allah. If a person performs ablution for the purpose of cooling himself or for some other purpose, the ablution would be void.

Rule No.281: It is not necessary that one should utter the intention of ablution in words, or think about it in his mind. It is sufficient that all the acts relating to ablution are performed in compliance with the order of Almighty Allah.

The ninth condition is that ablution should be performed in the prescribed sequence; that is, he should first wash his face, then his right hand, and then his left hand, and thereafter he should wipe his head and then the feet. As an obligatory precaution, he should wipe the right foot first and then the left. If the ablution is not done in the prescribed sequence it will be void.

The tenth condition is that the acts of ablution should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.

Rule No.282: If there is so much gap between the acts of ablution, that if he wants to wash or wipe a part or all the preceding parts which he had washed or wiped have dried up, his ablution will be void. But if he wants to wash or wipe a part but only the preceding part has dried up, then his ablution will be in order. For example, if while washing his left arm, he finds that his right arm has dried up, but his face is still wet, his ablution will be valid.

Rule No.283: If a person performs the acts of ablution consecutively, but the moisture of the previous parts dries up owing to hot weather or excessive heat of the body or any other similar cause, his ablution is in order.

Rule No.284: There is no harm in walking while performing ablution. Hence, if after washing his face and hands, a person walks a few steps and then wipes his head and feet, his ablution is valid.

The eleventh condition is that a person doing ablution should wash his face and hands and wipe his head and feet himself. Hence, if another person makes him perform ablution, or helps him in pouring water over his face, or hands, or in wiping his head, or feet, his ablution is void.

Rule No.285: If a person cannot perform ablution himself, he should appoint someone to assist him, and if that person demands any payment for that, he should be paid, provided that one can afford it and does not sustain any loss. But he should make the intention of ablution himself and he should wipe using his own hands. If this is not possible then his assistant will hold his hand and help him to do the wiping. And if that is not possible, his assistant will take some moisture from his hands, and with that moisture wipe his hand and feet.

Rule No.286: One should not obtain assistance in performing those acts of ablution which one can perform alone.

The twelfth condition is that there should be no constraint for using water.

Rule No.287: If a person fears that he will fall ill if he performs ablution, or if water is used up for ablution then no water will be left for drinking, he is not required to perform ablution. If he was unaware that water was harmful to him, and he performed ablution, and even later on it turned out to be harmful, his ablution will be valid provided that the harm caused by it is not so extensive that it is prohibited.

Rule No.288: If one finds that using the minimum quantity for washing the face and the hands properly will not be harmful, he should do ablution by restricting himself to that quantity of water.

The thirteenth condition is that there should be no impediment for the water to reach the parts of ablution.

Rule No.289: If a person finds that something has stuck to any part of ablution, but doubts whether it will prevent water from reaching there, he should remove that thing, or pour water under it.

Rule No.290: Dirt under the fingernails would not affect ablution. However, when the nails are cut then the dirt must be removed. Moreover, if the nails are unusually long, the dirt collected beneath the unusual part should be cleansed.

Rule No.291: If swelling takes place on the face, hands, the front part of the head, or the feet because of being burnt or any other reason, it will be sufficient to wash and wipe over the swelling. If there is an opening or hole in it, it will not be necessary to make the water reach beneath the skin. In fact, if a part of its skin gets peeled off, it is not at all necessary to pour water under the unpeeled part. However, at times there is skin which sticks or hangs loose after having peeled off; it should be cut off, or water should be poured underneath.

Rule No.292: If a person doubts whether something has remained stuck to the parts of ablution, and if it is a doubt which is deemed sensible by the people (i.e. a person working with mud doubting whether clay is stuck to his hands after his work), he should examine or clean his hands by scrubbing etc., until he is sure that there are no remnants, and that water will reach there without impediment.

Rule No.293: If there is dirt on the part of ablution which will not prevent water from reaching the body while washing or wiping, the ablution will be in order. Similarly, if some white lime splashed from the whitewash stays on the body, not obstructing water from reaching it, ablution will be valid. And if one doubts whether it may obstruct, then one should remove it.

Rule No.294: If a person was aware before performing ablution that on some parts of the body required for ablution, there is something which could prevent water from reaching them, but if he doubts after performing ablution whether water reached those parts or not, his ablution will be valid, if there is a probability that he was attentive to those parts during the ablution.

Rule No.295: If on some part of ablution there is an obstruction which sometimes allows water to reach the skin and sometimes does not, and if he doubts after having performed ablution whether the water has reached the skin, and he also knows that while performing ablution he was not attentive whether water reached those parts or not, as an obligatory precaution, he should repeat the ablution.

Rule No.296: If after ablution a person finds something on the parts of ablution which prevents water from reaching the skin, not knowing whether it was present at the time of ablution, or it appeared later, his ablution would be in order. But if he knows that at the time of ablution he was not bothered about that obstruction, then the obligatory precaution is that he should repeat ablution.

Rule No.297: If a person doubts after ablution whether any obstruction was present or not at the parts of ablution, and if there is a probability that at the time of ablution he was bothered about that, his ablution will be valid.

Rules Relating to Ablution

Rule No.298: If a person doubts too often about the acts of ablution and its conditions (i.e. about water being pure, or it not being usurped), he should not pay any heed to such doubts.

Rule No.299: If a person doubts whether his ablution has become void, he should treat it as valid. But, if he did not perform Istibra after urinating, and performed ablution, and thereafter some fluid was discharged about which he was not sure whether it was urine or something else, his ablution will be void.

Rule No.300: If a person doubts whether he has performed ablution or not, he should perform ablution.

Rule No.301: If a person is sure that he has performed ablution, and has also committed an act which invalidates ablution (e.g. urinating), but does not remember which happened first, he should act as follows:

  • If this situation arises before his prayer, he should perform ablution.
  • If it arises during prayer, he should break it and perform ablution.
  • If it arises after prayer, that prayer will be valid, but for the next prayers, however, he should perform ablution.

Rule No.302: If after or during ablution, a person becomes sure that he has not washed certain parts or has not wiped them, and if the moisture of the parts preceding them has dried up due to lapse of time, he should perform ablution again. And if the moisture has not dried up, or has dried up owing to hot weather, or other similar causes, he should wash or wipe the forgotten part as well as the parts which follow. Similarly, if during ablution he doubts whether he has washed or wiped a part or not, he should follow the same rule as above.

Rule No.303: If a person doubts after prayer, whether he performed ablution or not, and if there is probability that he was bothered about his state at the time of starting prayer, his prayer will be valid. As for the next prayers, he should perform ablution.

Rule No.304: If a person doubts during prayer whether he has performed ablution, his prayer is void, and he should perform ablution and then pray.

Rule No.305: If a person doubts whether his ablution became void before prayer or after, the prayers offered by him will be in order.

Rule No.306: If a person suffers from an incontinence, due to which drops of urine come out continuously, or he is not in a position to control his bowels, he should act as follows:

  • If he is sure that at some time during the prayer time there will be a respite during which there will be a restraint, then he should wash his private parts and perform ablution and prayer at such time.
  • If during the restraint, he can control his urine or stool only for performing obligatory acts of prayer, then he should perform only obligatory acts, and abandon the recommended (mustahab) acts (e.g. Adhan, Iqamah, Qunut etc).

Rule No.307: If the time of restraint is not enough to allow ablution and prayer, and if he discharges urine or stool several times during prayer, then if no hardship is involved, he should keep a container by his side, perform ablution every time he discharges, and continue praying. Although it seems in order that one ablution is enough for the whole prayer.

Rule No.308: If there is a continued incontinence, and it is difficult to renew ablution every time after discharge, then one ablution for every prayer will undoubtedly be enough. One ablution will be enough for several prayers, except when one commits any extraneous act, invalidating the ablution. However, it is better that he should do a fresh ablution for every prayer. But a fresh ablution is not necessary for the Qadha of a forgotten prostration or attestation (Tashahhud), nor for the precautionary prayer.

Rule No.309: It is not necessary for a person suffering from continued incontinence to pray immediately after ablution, but it is better that he should haste in offering prayers.

Rule No.310: It is permissible for a person suffering incontinence to touch the script of the Qur'an after ablution, even if he is not in the state of prayer.

Rule No.311: A person who cannot control urine should use a bag filled with cotton or some similar device, to protect oneself, and to prevent urine from reaching other places, the obligatory precaution is that before every prayer, he should wash the outlet of urine which has become impure. Moreover, a person who cannot control excretion should, if possible, prevent it from reaching other parts, at least during the time required for prayer. And the obligatory precaution is that if no hardship is involved, he should wash the anus for every prayer.

Rule No.312: A person who suffers from incontinence should, if possible, try to restrain himself at least for the duration of prayer, even if it incurs some expenses. In fact, if his ailment can be treated easily, he should get the necessary treatment.

Rule No.313: If a person who suffered incontinence recovers from the ailment, it is not necessary for him to repeat those prayers which he offered according to his religious duty during the period of his ailment. However, if he recovers during prayer, he should repeat that prayers.

Rule No.314: If a person suffers from an incontinence which renders him unable to control the passing of wind, he will act according to the rules applicable to the incontinent persons as stated above.

Things for Which Ablution is Obligatory

Rule No.315: It is obligatory to perform ablution for the following six things:

(1) For all obligatory prayers, except funeral prayers. As regards to recommended (mustahab) prayers, ablution is a condition for their validity.

(2) For the prostration and attestation which a person forgot to perform during the prayers, provided that he invalidated his ablution after prayer and before performing those forgotten acts. It is not obligatory to perform ablution for prostration of inadvertence.

(3) For the obligatory circumambulation of the holy Ka'bah.

(4) If a person has made a vow, or a solemn pledge, or taken an oath for ablution.

(5) If a person has made a vow, for example, that he would touch some part of his body to the script of the Holy Qur'an.

(6) For washing and making pure the holy Qur'an which has become impure, or for taking it out from lavatory etc. in which it has fallen, when he becomes obliged to touch the script of the holy Qur'an with his hand, or some other part of his body. But if the delay by making ablution causes further desecration of the holy Qur'an, one should take it out from lavatory etc., or make it pure, without performing ablution.

Rule No.316: It is prohibited to touch the script of the holy Qur'an with any part of one's body, without performing ablution. However, touching the translation of the holy Qur'an, in any language, without ablution is not prohibited.

Rule No.317: It is not obligatory to prevent a child or an insane person from touching the script of the holy Qur'an. However, if their touching the holy Qur'an violates its sanctity, they should be prevented from touching it. Similarly, a child or an insane person should not be forced to touch the Holy Quran without ablution.

Rule No.318: It is prohibited to touch the Name of Allah or His special Attributes without ablution, in whichever language they may have been written. And it is also better not to touch, without ablution, the names of the holy Prophet of Islam, the holy Imams and Hazrat Fatima Zahra (peace be upon them). It is prohibited if this violates the sanctity.

Rule No.319: If a person performs ablution or ritual bath before the time for prayer, in order to be in state of purity, they will be in order. And even if he performs ablution near the time of prayer, with the intention of preparing himself for prayer, there is no objection.

Rule No.320: If a person believes that the time for prayers has set in, and makes the intention of obligatory ablution, and then realises after performing the ablution that the time for the prayer had not set in, his ablution is in order.

Rule No.321: Ablution is recommended for the following purposes:

(1) Funeral prayer.

(2) Visiting the graves.

(3) Entering a mosque.

(4) Entering the Shrines of the holy Prophets and Imams (A.S.).

(5) For reading, writing, or touching the margin or border of the holy Qur'an, or for keeping it with oneself.

(6) Before going to bed for sleep. It is also recommended that a person already in ablution, should perform a fresh ablution for every prayer.

If he has performed ablution for any one of the above purposes, he can commit all acts which require ablution. For example, he can even pray with that ablution.

Things that Invalidate the Ablution

Rule No.322: The following seven things invalidate the ablution:

(1) Urination.

(2) Defecation.

(3) Breaking wind through the anus.

(4) Sleep by which both the eyes and the ears cease to function. However, if one ceases to see but continues hearing, ablution remains valid.

(5) Things on account of which a person loses his sensibility, like lunacy, intoxication or unconsciousness.

(6) Menstrual irregular discharge (Istihadha) – which will be dealt with later.

(7) The state of major ritual impurity (Janabah), and, as an obligatory precaution, every state which requires a ritual bath.

Ablution of Splint/Bandages (Jabeera Ablution)

The splint with which a wound or a fractured bone is bandaged or held tight and the medication applied to a wound etc. is called jabeera.

Rule No.323: If there is a wound, sore, or a fractured bone in the parts on which ablution is performed, and if it is not bandaged, then one should perform ablution in the usual manner, if the use of water is not harmful.

Rule No.324: If there is an unbandaged wound, sore, or broken bone in one's face or hands, and if the use of water is harmful for it, one should wash the parts adjoining the wound from above downwards, in the usual manner of ablution. And it is better to pass the wet hand on it, if it is not harmful to do so. Therefore, he should place a pure piece of cloth on it, and pass a wet hand over that cloth. But in the case of a fracture, dry ablution must be performed.

Rule No.325: If there is an unbandaged wound or sore or fractured bone on the front part of the head or on the feet, and he cannot wipe it, or the wound has covered the entire part of wiping, or if he cannot wipe even the healthy parts, then it is necessary for him to do dry ablution. And as a precaution, he should also perform ablution, keeping a piece of pure cloth on the wound etc. and wiping that cloth with the moisture of ablution in his hands.

Rule No.326: If the sore, or wound, or fractured bone is bandaged, and if it is possible to untie it, and if water is not harmful for it, then one should untie it and then do ablution, regardless of whether the wound etc. is on his face and hands, or on the front part of his head or on his feet.

Rule No.327: If the wound, or sore, or the fractured bone which has been tied with a splint or a bandage is on the face or the hands of a person, and if undoing it and pouring water on it is harmful, he should wash the adjacent parts which is possible to wash, and then wipe the splint.

Rule No.328: If it is not possible to untie the bandage of the wound, but the wound and the bandage on it are pure, and if it is possible to make water reach the wound without any harm, water should be made to reach the wound by pouring from above downward. And if the wound or its bandage is impure, but it is possible to wash it, and to make water reach the wound, then he should wash it and should make water reach the wound at the time of ablution. And if water is not harmful for the wound, but it is not possible to make water reach it, or the wound is impure and cannot be washed, he should perform dry ablution.

Rule No.329: If the jabeera covers the whole face or a whole arm or both arms, then as a precaution one should do dry ablution, and also do ablution as per rules of jabeera. And if the jabeera covers the whole head or both feet, then one should do dry ablution only.

Rule No.330: It is not necessary that jabeera should be made of things which are permissible in prayer. For example, if it is of silk, or even of the parts of an animal whose meat is prohibited to eat, it is permissible to perform wiping on it, provided that they are not impure, and if they are impure, wiping must be done by placing a pure cloth on them.

Rule No.331: If a person has jabeera on his palm and fingers, and he passes a wet hand on it while performing ablution, he should do the wiping of his head and feet with the same wetness.

Rule No.332: If the jabeera has covered the entire surface of the foot, but a part from the side of the fingers and a part from the upper side of the foot is open, one should do wiping on the foot at the open places, and also on the surface of the jabeera.

Rule No.333: If a person has several jabeeras on his face or hands, he should wash the places between them, and if the jabeeras are on the head or on the feet, he should wipe the places between them. And as for the places where there are jabeeras, he should act accordingly to the rules of jabeera.

Rule No.334: If the jabeera has covered unusually more space than the size of the wound, and it is difficult to remove it, then one should perform dry ablution, except when the jabeera is at the places of dry ablution itself, in which case it is necessary that he should perform both ablution and dry ablution. And in both the cases, if it is possible to remove the jabeera he should remove it. Then, if the wound is on the face and hands, he should wash its sides, and if they are on the head or the feet, he should wipe its sides. As for the wounds themselves, he will act according to the rules of jabeera.

Rule No.335: If there is no wound or fractured bone in the parts of ablution, but the use of water is harmful for some other reason, one should perform dry ablution.

Rule No.336: If a person has got his vein opened on any one of the parts of ablution, and he cannot wash it, or water is harmful for it, then he must perform dry ablution.

Rule No.337: If something is stuck on the part of ablution or ritual bath, and it is not possible to remove it, or its removal involves unbearable pain, then one should perform dry ablution. But, if the thing which is stuck is a medicine, then rules relating to jabeera will apply to it.

Rule No.338: In all kinds of ritual baths, except the funeral bath (Mayyit), the jabeera ritual bath is like jabeera ablution. However, in such cases one should resort to ordinal bath not immersion bath.

If there is a bandaged wound or sore on the body, then his obligation is to have a ritual bath, not dry ablution, and as a precaution he must wipe over the bandage. If the wound or sore is unbandaged, then it is obligatory to perform the ritual bath and dry ablution both. And while performing the ritual bath, the recommended precaution is that he should place a pure piece of cloth on the unbandaged wound or sore, and wipe over that cloth. However, if there is fractured bone in the body, he should do a ritual bath and should, as a precautionary measure, also perform the wiping on the bandage. And if it is not possible to wipe on the bandage, or if the fractured bone is not in a splint, it is necessary for him to perform dry ablution.

Rule No.339: If the obligation of a person is to perform dry ablution, and if at some of the places of dry ablution he has wound, sore, or fractured bone, he should perform dry ablution of the bandage according to the rules of ablution of jabeera.

Rule No.340: If a person who has to pray with the jabeera ablution or jabeera bath knows that his excuse will not be removed until the end of time for prayer, he can offer prayers in the prime time. But if he hopes that his excuse will be removed before the end of prayer time, it is obligatory for him to wait, and if his excuse is not removed by then, he should offer prayers with jabeera ablution or jabeera bath. And if, however, he prayed in the prime time, and his excuse was removed before the end of prayer time, then he must do ablution or ritual bath, and repeat the prayers.

Rule No.341: If a person has to keep his eye lashes stuck together because of some eye disease, he should perform dry ablution.

Rule No.342: If a person cannot decide whether he should perform dry ablution or jabeera ablution, the obligatory precaution is that he should perform both.

Rule No.343: If the excuse remains until the end of the time for prayer, the prayers offered with jabeera ablution are valid, and that ablution can be valid for later prayers also.