Kinds of blood seen by women

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Kinds of blood seen by women

Menstrual irregular discharge (Istihadha)

One type of blood which is seen by women is called Istihadha, i.e. menstrual irregular discharge, and a woman in that state is called Mustahadha.

Rule no.390. Menstrual irregular discharge is usually yellowish and cold and is emitted without gush or irritation and is also not thick. It is, however, possible that sometimes the colour of the blood may be red or dark, and it may also be warm and thick and may be discharged with gush and irritation.

Rule no.391. There are three kinds of menstrual irregular discharge: slight or little irregular menstrual discharge (Qalila), medium (Mutawassita) and excessive (Katheera):

(1) Little irregular menstrual discharge (Qalila):

If the blood remains on the surface of the wool or pad etc., (placed by a woman on her private part) but does not penetrate into it.

(2) Medium irregular menstrual discharge (Mutawassita):

If the blood penetrates into the cotton (or pad etc.), even partially, but does not soak the cloth tied on the outer side.

(3) Excessive irregular menstrual discharge (Katheera):

If the blood penetrates through the cotton, soaking it and the cloth (etc.) around it.

Rules relating to menstrual irregular discharge

Rule no.392. In the case of little menstrual irregular discharge a woman should perform separate ablution for every prayer and should, as a precaution, wash or change the pad. And if some blood is found on the outer part of her private parts she should make it pure with water.

Rule no.393. In the case of medium irregular menstrual discharge, a woman should take a bath for dawn prayer, and she should act accordingly to the rules of little menstrual irregular discharge as explained in the foregoing rule for the subsequent prayers until the next morning. If she does not take a bath intentionally or forgetfully before dawn prayer, she should take the bath before midday and afternoon prayers. And if she misses even that, then she should take the bath before sunset and evening prayers. This she would do regardless of whether bleeding continues or stops.

Rule no.394. In the case of excessive bleeding the woman should act according to the rule mentioned above and as a precaution change the cotton or pad tied to her private parts or make it pure with water for each prayer. It is also necessary that she should take one bath for dawn prayer, one for midday and afternoon prayers and once again for sunset and evening prayers. She should offer the afternoon prayer immediately after midday prayer and if she allowed any lapse of time between them, she should do bath again for afternoon prayer. Similarly if she keeps any time gap between sunset and evening prayer, she should take the bath again for evening prayer and also perform ablution.

Rule no.395. If menstrual irregular discharge is seen before the time for prayers has set in, and the woman has not performed ablution or bath for that bleeding, she should perform ablution or bath at the time of prayers, even though she may not be menstruating (mustahadhah) at that time.

Rule no.396. A woman whose menstrual irregular discharge is medium, in which performing of ablution and bath both are necessary, she can take the bath or perform the ablution first as she wishes, but it is better to do ablution first. But if a woman with excessive menstrual irregular discharge wishes to do ablution, she should do so before the bath.

Rule no.397. When a woman who had little menstrual irregular discharge finds out after dawn prayers that her menstrual irregular discharge has developed into medium one, she will have to take the bath for midday and afternoon prayers. And if that change occurs after midday and afternoon prayers, then she will have the bath for sunset and evening prayers.

Rule no.398. If a woman finds out after dawn prayer that her little or medium menstrual irregular discharge had developed into an excessive one, then she should have a bath for midday and afternoon prayers, and a bath for sunset and evening prayers, and if this discharge occurs after midday and afternoon prayers she should take a bath for sunset and evening prayer.

Rule no.399. If a woman in excessive or medium menstrual irregular discharge performs the bath before the time for prayer has set in, her bath is void. But if she performs the bath with the intention of Raja (i.e. in the hope of fulfilment of one’s religious obligations before Allah) before the time of dawn prayer to offer Tahajjud prayers (night prayers), it is in order. However, it is necessary for her to take a ritual bath for morning prayer.

Rule no.400. Apart from the rules related to the daily prayers which have been explained earlier, a woman in the state of menstrual irregular discharge must perform ablution for all other prayers, whether obligatory or recommended. But if she desires to repeat, as a precautionary measure, the daily prayers which she has already offered or if she wishes to offer the prayers which she had offered individually, she should perform all the acts which have been mentioned with regard to menstrual irregular discharge. In the case of precautionary prayer, forgotten prostrations, forgotten attestations (Tashahhud), prostration of inadvertence, which are performed immediately after the prayers, it is not necessary for her to follow the rules of menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.401. After the bleeding of a mustahadha woman has stopped, she should follow the rules of menstrual irregular discharge only for the first subsequent prayer which she may offer. For further prayers which follow, the rules of menstrual irregular discharge would not be necessary.

Rule no.402. If a woman does not know what kind of menstrual irregular discharge she has, she should insert into herself some cotton and wait a while to ascertain. And when she knows which kind of menstrual irregular discharge it is she would follow the rules prescribed. And, if she is sure that the type of menstrual irregular discharge will not change by the time she stands for her prayers she may carry out the test before the time for prayers sets in.

Rule no.403. If a mustahadha woman starts her prayers without making any investigation, but her intention is to obey the orders of Allah and act according to her duty, then her prayers are valid. For example, if her menstrual irregular discharge was little, and she acted according to its rules, her prayers will be correct and valid. But if she did not have the intention of obeying Allah or following the rules, her prayers would be invalid. For example, she followed the rules of little menstrual irregular discharge while in actual she was in the medium one, her prayers would be invalid.

Rule no.404. If a mustahadha woman cannot investigate about her menstrual irregular discharge she should act according to the obligation about which she is certain. For example, if she does not know whether her menstrual irregular discharge is little or medium she should follow the rules which are prescribed for little menstrual irregular discharge. And if she does not know whether her menstrual irregular discharge is medium or excessive she should perform the rules prescribed for the medium menstrual irregular discharge. But, if she knows which of the three kinds of menstrual irregular discharge she has had previously, then she should act according to the rules for that kind of menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.405. If at the time of its initial appearance the blood of menstrual irregular discharge remains within the interior of the body and does not come out, it does not invalidate the ablution and ritual bath already performed by the woman. And if it comes out, it nullifies the ablution and the bath even if its quantity is very small.

Rule no.406. If mustahadha woman does not see blood during or after ablution or bath, and she then examines herself after prayer and finds blood, if she has enough time at her disposal for prayer, then as an obligatory precaution she has to perform the ablution or the bath according to her obligation and has to offer the prayer again, even if she knows that the blood would reappear.

Rule no.407. If a mustahadha woman knows that since the time she has engaged herself with the ablution or bath, blood has not come out of her body, she can defer offering prayers for as long as she knows she will remain in that pure state.

Rule no.408. If a mustahadha woman knows that before the time for prayers comes to an end, she will become totally pure, or if she knows that at a certain time, bleeding would stop for the time required for offering prayers, she should wait and offer prayers when she is pure.

Rule no.409. If a mustahadha woman, after having completed the ablution and ritual bath, finds that the bleeding has ceased, and if she is certain that if she delays the prayer she will become fully pure, within the time required for performing the ablution and bath she should delay the prayers, and offer them after performing fresh ablution and bath when she has become fully pure. But if the time for prayers is limited, it will not be necessary for her to perform ablution and bath. She should offer prayer with the ablution and bath which she already has.

Rule no.410. When a menstruated woman whose bleeding has been excessive or medium becomes fully pure, she should take a ritual bath. However, if she knows that no blood was seen after having the bath for the previous prayer, it is not necessary for her to take the bath again.

Rule no.411. Mustahadha women, with little, medium or excessive bleeding, should commence their prayers immediately after having acted according to their respective rules. But there is no harm in reciting the Adhan and Iqamah before the prayer or performing recommended acts like Qunut etc.

Rule no.412. If a mustahadha woman who is required to allow no time gap between her ablution or bath and her prayers, does not act accordingly, she would have to perform the ablution or bath again and then pray without any delay.

Rule no.413. If the blood of menstrual irregular discharge has a swift flow and does not stop, and if stoppage of blood is not harmful to her, she should try to prevent the blood from coming out after the bath. And if she does not do so and the blood comes out, she should perform the bath again and offer prayers all over again if she had already prayed.

Rule no.414. If blood does not stop at the time of her bath, the bath is in order. But, if during the bath the medium menstrual irregular discharge becomes excessive it will be necessary for her to start the bath all over again.

Rule no.415. For a mustahadha woman who is fasting, it is a recommended precaution that she prevents the blood from coming out of the body, throughout the day, as far as possible.

Rule no.416. It is a precautionary measure that the fast of a woman whose menstrual irregular discharge is excessive will be valid only if in the night preceding the day on which she intends to fast she has the bath for the prayers of sunset and evening, and also has the bath during day time which are obligatory for the daily prayers. But most likely, the validity of a woman’s fasting during medium menstrual irregular discharge does not depend on the bath.

Rule no.417. If a woman becomes mustahadha after afternoon prayer and does not have the bath until sunset, her fast will be in order.

Rule no.418. If a woman in the state of little menstrual irregular discharge finds out before starting the prayers that her bleeding has become excessive or medium, she should act according to the rules prescribed for medium or excessive menstrual irregular discharge as mentioned above. And if the medium menstrual irregular discharge becomes excessive she should follow the rules prescribed for excessive menstrual irregular discharge. And in case she has taken the bath for medium menstrual irregular discharge it would not suffice, and she should take the bath again for excessive menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.419. If the medium menstrual irregular discharge becomes excessive while she is already in prayer, she should break the prayer and perform the bath for excessive menstrual irregular discharge and also perform other relevant acts and repeat the same prayer. And on the basis of recommended precaution she should perform the ablution before the bath. And if she does not have time for the bath, she should perform ablution first and then dry ablution instead of the bath. And if she finds that no time is left even for dry ablution then she should, on the basis of precaution, not break the prayers and complete the same in that very condition. It will be necessary for her to offer Qadha prayers later. Similar rules will apply if during the prayer her little menstrual irregular discharge becomes medium or excessive. But it is necessary that the woman in medium menstrual irregular discharge does ablution after taking the bath for prayer.

Rule no.420. If the blood stops during prayer and the woman in the state of menstrual irregular discharge does not know whether or not it has also stopped internally, and if after her prayer she realises that bleeding had totally stopped, and if she has sufficient time at her disposal to offer prayer again in the state of purity, it will be obligatory for her to act according to the rules applicable to her and pray again.

Rule no.421. If the excessive menstrual irregular discharge reduces to medium menstrual irregular discharge, the mustahadha woman should act according to the rules prescribed for medium menstrual irregular discharge for the later prayers. For example, if excessive menstrual irregular discharge becomes medium before midday prayer she should perform ablution first and then take the bath for midday prayer; and for the afternoon, sunset and evening prayers she should perform only ablution. However, if she does not take the bath for midday prayer and has time for afternoon prayer only she should take a bath for afternoon prayer. And if she does not take the bath for even afternoon prayer she should take the bath for sunset prayer. And if she does not take the bath for that prayer as well and has just enough time for evening prayer only, she should take the bath for evening prayer.

Rule no.422. If the excessive menstrual irregular discharge stops before every prayer and commences again, she should take the bath before each prayer.

Rule no.423. If the excessive menstrual irregular discharge reduces to little, the mustahadha woman should follow for the first prayer the rules prescribed for excessive menstrual irregular discharge; and for the later prayers the rules prescribed for little menstrual irregular discharge. Similarly, if the medium menstrual irregular discharge becomes little she should follow rules prescribed for medium menstrual irregular discharge for the first prayer and those prescribed for little menstrual irregular discharge for the later prayers.

Rule no.424. If a mustahadha woman neglects any one of the obligatory rules, her prayer will be void.

Rule no.425. A mustahadha woman who has performed the ablution or the bath for prayer cannot touch voluntarily any part of her body to the script of the Quran, but it is allowed if done so voluntarily or in the state of helplessness, although as a precaution she should perform ablution for the purpose.

Rule no.426. A mustahadha woman who has done her obligatory baths can go into a mosque, pause for some time in it, and recite the verses of the Qur'an which require obligatory prostration. It is also lawful for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her, though she may not have performed all the acts which are required before the prayers (e.g. changing the cotton and the pad). And it is most likely these acts may be permissible even without bath, but precaution is in avoiding them.

Rule no.427. If a woman who is in the state of excessive or medium menstrual irregular discharge wishes to recite, before the time of prayers, a verse of the Qur'an which requires an obligatory prostration or to enter a mosque, she should, on the basis of recommended precaution, take a bath. And same rule applies if her husband wishes to have sexual intercourse with her.

Rule no.428. The Prayer of Natural Phenomena is obligatory for a mustahadha woman and she should do ablution for the prayer of phenomenon. And if she is in the state of medium or excessive menstrual discharge, as a precaution, perform the ritual bath before ablution.

Rule no.429. When the Prayer of Phenomena becomes obligatory for a mustahadha woman at the time of daily prayers and she wishes to offer these two prayers one after the other, she cannot offer both of them with one ablution and one bath.

Rule no.430. If a mustahadha woman wishes to offer a Qadha prayer she should perform all those acts which are obligatory on her for offering the prayer.

Rule no.431. If a woman knows that the blood discharge from her body is not from a wound and cannot decide on it being the blood of menstruation or the blood of lochia, she should act according to the rules in respect of menstrual irregular discharge. And if she doubts whether it is menstrual irregular discharge or some other blood and it does not possess signs of other blood, then she should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, follow the rules of menstrual irregular discharge.

Menstruation

Menstrual discharge (menstruation) is a kind of blood which is normally discharged every month from the womb of women for a few days. When menses is discharged the woman is called 'Haaeza'.

Rule no.432. The blood of menstruation is usually thick and warm and its colour is either black or red. It is discharged with a pressure and a little burning or irritation.

Rule no.433. It is generally accepted amongst the qualified jurists that the blood of menstruation does not occur after the woman reaches the age of fifty, but it is obligatory on a woman from the clan of Quraysh, that if she sees the blood until the age of sixty, having the same signs as those of menstruation, to treat it as the blood of menstruation.

Rule no.434. Blood seen by a girl who has not yet completed 9 years of her age, or a woman after reaching the age of menopause (as explained above), will not be classified as menstruation.

Rule no.435. It is quite possible for a pregnant woman or a breast-feeding mother to see menstruation and the rules which apply to a non-pregnant woman also apply to a pregnant one; the only difference is that if a woman who has conceived sees blood with the usual signs of menstruation 20 days after the commencement of her habitual period, that blood will be treated as menstruation.

Rule no.436. If a girl sees blood and does not know whether she has completed nine years of age, it will not be classified as menstruation, whether the blood bears the signs of menstruation or not.

Rule no.437. If a woman who is doubtful as to whether or not she has reached the age of menopause sees blood which she cannot decide whether it is of menstruation or not she should decide that she has not reached the age of menopause.

Rule no.438. The period of menstruation is not less than 3 days and not more than 10 days, and if the period during which blood is discharged falls short of 3 days, that blood will not be considered as menstruation.

Rule no.439. It is necessary that the blood of menstruation flows continuously for the first 3 days. Therefore, if blood is seen for 2 days and then interrupted for 1 day and then seen again for 1 day, it will not be menstruation.

Rule no.440. In the initial stage, it is necessary that blood flows out, but it is not necessary to be seen flowing out during all the three days. It is sufficient for the blood to be internally present. So, if a woman is clean for a brief period during the first 3 days (as is common among all or some women) even then the blood discharged will be menstruation.

Rule no.441. It is not necessary that a woman should have bleeding on the 1st and the 4th night, but it is essential that bleeding should not discontinue on the 2nd and the 3rd night. For example, if bleeding commences on the morning of the 1st day and continues until sunset on the 3rd day, it would be considered as menstruation. Similarly, if blood is seen from the middle of the 1st day and stops at the same time on the 4th day, the same will apply.

Rule no.442. If a woman sees blood with signs of menstruation or in her days of habit continuously for three days, and then it stops for a brief period before it is seen again with signs of menstruation or in her habitual period, and if the total number of days in which blood was seen and in which it stopped does not exceed ten, then the days in which blood is not seen will be counted as of menstruation; then as an obligatory precaution, the days in which she remained pure she should do all those acts she would do when she is pure, and also refrain from all those acts which are forbidden to the menstruating woman.

Rule no.443. If blood is seen for more than three days and less than ten days and she does not know whether the blood is of a sore or a wound, or of menstruation, she should not treat it as menstruation.

Rule no.444. If a woman sees blood about which she is unable to discern as to whether it is the blood of wound or of menstruation, she should continue to perform her acts of worship, except when her preceding condition was that of menstruation, in which case she should treat it as menstruation.

Rule no.445. If a woman doubts whether the blood she has seen is of menstruation or menstrual irregular discharge, she should treat it to be menstruation if it bears the properties of menstruation.

Rule no.446. If a woman is unable to decide whether the blood she has seen is of menstruation or of virginity, she should examine herself i.e. she should insert cotton in herself and wait for some time. If she finds that only its sides have been stained with blood then it is virginal blood, and if the blood has soaked the entire piece of cotton then it is menstruation.

Rule no.447. If blood is seen for less than 3 days and then stops and starts again for 3 days the second blood will be menstruation but the first blood will not be considered as menstruation even if it was seen during the days of habit.

Rules for a woman in the state of menstruation

Rule no.448. Acts which are prohibited for a woman who is in the state of menstruation:

(1) Prayer and other similar acts of worship for which ablution or dry ablution or ritual bath is necessary. However, there is no harm in performing those acts of worship for which ablution, dry ablution or ritual bath are not obligatory (e.g. funeral prayers).

(2) All those acts which are forbidden to a person in the state of sexual ritual impurity (and have been mentioned earlier).

(3) Having sexual intercourse; it is prohibited for man as well as for woman even if only the penis glans may penetrate, and even if semen may not be discharged. In fact, the obligatory precaution is that the male should refrain from insertion even to an extent lesser than the point of circumcision. Anal intercourse with the wife is forbidden in menstruation.

Rule no.449. Sexual intercourse is prohibited also when a woman may not be very certain of being in the state of menstruation, but lslamic law guides her to treat herself as such. So, when a woman sees blood for more than ten days, and, as will be explained later, she has to resort to the habit of her relatives for determining the period of menstruation, her husband will not be permitted to have sexual relations with her during those days.

Rule no.450. If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife from the front or rear when she is menstruating, he should seek Divine forgiveness and the recommended precaution is that he should give expiation (“kaffarah”). Rules regarding expiation will be mentioned later.

Rule no.451. With the exception of actual sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, there is no harm in all other forms of courting, wooing and kissing etc.

Rule no.452. Expiation for sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman is gold coins weighing 3.457 grams if carried out in the early days, 1.729 grams for the middle days and 0.865 grams for the final days of the period of menstruation (each of these three groups of days being equal to about a third of the period of menstruation). For example, if menstruation lasts for 6 days and her husband has sexual intercourse with her during the 1st and 2nd days or nights, he should pay gold weighing 3.457 grams; and during the 3rd and 4th days and nights he should pay gold weighing 1.729 grams; and for the 5th and 6th days and nights he should pay gold weighing 0.865 grams.

Rule no.453. If it is not possible to pay in gold coins, he should pay its equivalent value. And if the price of gold has undergone a change at the time he wishes to pay the expiation to the poor, as compared with the time when he had sexual intercourse, he should pay at the prevailing rate when he wishes to pay it to the poor.

Rule no.454. If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife in the first, second and third stage of menstruation he should give expiation for all the three, totalling 6.051 grams.

Rule no.455. If a man has had repeated sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, it is better he should pay expiation for each time.

Rule no.456. If a man realises during the course of sexual intercourse that the woman has started her menstruation, he should withdraw from her immediately, and if he does not do so the recommendable precaution is that he should pay expiation.

Rule no.457. If a man commits fornication with a menstruating woman or has sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman who is not his 'mahram' under the impression that she is his wife, the recommended precaution in this case is that he should also pay expiation.

Rule no.458. If a man has sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman on account of ignorance or forgetting the rule, he does not need to pay expiation.

Rule no.459. If a man has sexual intercourse with a woman with the belief that she is menstruating, but it transpires later that she was not menstruating, he does not need to pay expiation.

Rule no.460. As will be explained in the rule relating to divorce, if a woman is divorced while she is in the state of menstruation, the divorce is void.

Rule no.461. If a woman says that she is menstruating, or claims to have become pure from menstruation, her statement should be accepted.

Rule no.462. If a woman starts menstruating while she is in prayer, her prayer will become void.

Rule no.463. If a woman doubts while offering prayer whether or not she has started menstruating, her prayer is in order. However, if she realises after offering prayer that she had actually started menstruating during the prayer, her prayers will be void.

Rule no.464. After a woman becomes pure from menstruation it is obligatory for her to take the ritual bath for the prayer and other acts of worship which require ablution or ritual bath or dry ablution. The rules for this bath are the same as for the bath of sexual ritual impurity (janabah). And it is obligatory that after the bath she should perform ablution.

Rule no.465. After a woman has become pure from menstruation, and before having taken the ritual bath, the divorce given to her will be in order, and her husband can also have sexual intercourse with her; though it is better to have sexual intercourse after the woman has washed herself. However, the recommended precaution is that the man should avoid having sexual intercourse with her before she has taken the bath. However, until she has had the bath, other acts like staying in a mosque and touching the writing of the Qur'an which were prohibited for her at the time of menstruation do not become permissible for her.

Rule no.466. If the woman does not have sufficient water for ablution and ritual bath, and if it is just enough for the bath only, she should take the bath, and she should perform dry ablution instead of ablution. And if the water is sufficient for performing ablution only, she should perform ablution and perform dry ablution instead of the bath. And if she does not have water for either of them (i.e. for the bath and ablution) she should perform two dry ablutions instead of the ablution and the bath.

Rule no.467. There is no Qadha for the prayer which she left during her menstruation, but she should give Qadha for the obligatory fasts missed by her due to menstruation.

Rule no.468. If the time for prayer sets in and a woman knows or considers it probable that if she delays offering prayer she will start menstruating, she should offer prayer immediately.

Rule no.469. If a woman delays offering prayer on exact time, allowing a lapse equal to the time required for offering one prayer together with ablution or dry ablution or ritual bath, and then she starts menstruating, she will have to offer Qadha for that prayer. And in calculating the time, the extraneous things like praying quickly or slowly and other matters have to be considered individually. For example, if a woman who is not a traveller delays her prayer of midday, the Qadha will be obligatory for her if time equal to performing four units of prayer along with ablution or dry ablution or ritual bath passes away from the exact time of midday and then she starts menstruating. And for one who is a traveller the passage of time equal to performing two units along with ablution or dry ablution or bath is sufficient.

Rule no.470. If a woman is pure from menstruation when the time for prayer is near to end, and has at her disposal time which suffices for the bath and performing one unit or more, she should offer the prayer, and if she fails to do so she should offer its Qadha.

Rule no.471. If a woman is pure from menstruation and does not have sufficient time for the bath, but she can offer prayer within the prescribed time after performing dry ablution, the obligatory precaution is that she should offer that prayer with dry ablution, and even if she did not offer that prayer it will not be obligatory for her to offer its Qadha. Again, if her religious obligation is dry ablution due to other reasons, like, if water is harmful for her, she should perform dry ablution and offer that prayer, and if she does not offer it, she will have to give its Qadha.

Rule no.472. If after becoming pure from menstruation, a woman doubts whether or not she has time left for the prayers, she should offer the prayer.

Rule no.473. If after becoming pure from menstruation a woman does not offer prayer under the impression that she does not have time to make necessary preparations for prayer and to offer even one unit, but understands later that she did have time for the purpose, she should offer Qadha.

Rule no.474. It is recommended (mustahab) for a menstruating woman that when it is time for prayer, she makes herself pure by washing away blood, and changing the pad. Then she should perform ablution or dry ablution, whichever is applicable, and sit at the place meant for prayer facing Qibla and busy herself in recital, supplication and salutations (Salawat).

Rule no.475. It is hateful (makrooh) for a menstruating woman to read the holy Qur'an, or keep it with herself, or touch with any part of her body the space between its lines. It is also hateful (makrooh) for her to dye her hair with "henna" or any other thing like it.

Categories of women in menstruation

Rule no.476. There are six types:

(1) Women having the habit of time and duration: A woman who sees blood in each of the two consecutive months at a particular time and for a fixed number of days. For example, in each month the blood may be seen from the 1st until the 7th of the month.

(2) Women having the habit of time: A woman who sees blood in each of the two consecutive months at a particular time but the number of days varies. For example, in two consecutive months her blood starts coming on the 1st of the month but she becomes pure on the 7th day in the first month and on the 8th day in the second month.

(3) Women having the habit of duration: A woman who sees blood in each of the two consecutive months for a particular number of days but the time of commencement is not the same. For example, in the first month the blood is seen from the 5th to the 10th of the month, and in the second month from the 12th to the 17th of that month.

(4) Women with disturbed or disordered menstruation (Mudhtariba): A woman who has seen blood for a few months but who has not formed a habit or whose former habit has been disturbed and has not formed a new one.

(5) Beginner (Mubtadiya): A woman who sees menstrual blood for the first time.

(6) Forgetful women (Nasiya): A woman who has forgotten her habit.

Some further details are given below about menstruated women:

Woman having the habit of time and duration

Women having the habit of time and duration are of two types:

(1) A woman who sees blood in two consecutive months at a particular time for a particular duration. For example, she sees blood on the 1st of each month and becomes pure on the 7th of each month. Her habit of menstruation will be from the first to the seventh of every month.

(2) A woman who sees blood in each of the two consecutive months at a particular time and after 3 or more days she may be pure for one or more days and the blood is seen again; and the total number of days during which the blood is seen as well as those during which she remains pure does not exceed 10 days; and in each month the total number of days during which blood is seen, and the intervening days during which she is pure must be same. In such a case the habit of the woman will be counted according to the days during which blood is seen, and including the intervening days during which she remained pure. It is not, however, necessary that the intervening days during which she remains pure should be identical in each month. For example, if in the 1st month blood is seen for 3 days from the 1st to the 3rd of the month and then she remains pure for 3 days and blood is seen again for 3 days. In the second month blood comes for three days, and then blood stops for more or less than three days, and again the blood is seen, and the total numbers of days in which the blood is seen and stopped are nine, all these days are counted as days of menstruation, and the habit of that woman will be nine days.

Rule no.477. If a woman who has a fixed habit of time, sees blood on time or a day or two earlier that blood will be menstruation even if it does not bear the signs of menstruation. Therefore, she will act according the rules applied to a menstruating woman. And if it transpires later that it was not menstruation, for example, if she becomes pure before three days, then she should offer Qadha for the acts of worship which she has left out.

Rule no.478. If a woman having the habit of time and duration sees blood during all days of her fixed habit plus a few days before and after and bears the signs of menstruation, and if the total number of days does not exceed 10, all of it is menstruation. And if it exceeds 10 days, then only the blood seen during the days of habit is menstruation and the rest will be menstrual irregular discharge, and she should give Qadha of the acts of worship which she did not perform during the days before and after her habit. And if she sees blood with signs of menstruation on all the days of her habit as well as a few days earlier, and if the total number of the days does not exceed 10, all of it is menstruation. And if it exceeds ten days, then the blood seen during the days of habit will be menstruation, and the blood seen earlier will be classified as menstrual irregular discharge. She will offer Qadha for the prayers left out during those earlier days. And if she sees blood during her days of fixed habit plus a few days after her habit, and have the signs of menstruation, and if the total does not exceed ten days, all of it is menstruation. But if it exceeds ten days, then the blood seen during habitual days will be menstruation, and the rest is menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.479. If a woman who has the fixed habit of time and duration, sees blood on some days of her habit and also a few days earlier, and has the signs of menstruation, and if the total number of days does not exceed 10 days, all of it is menstruation. And if the number of days exceeds 10 and if she sees blood in her habitual time less than three days, she will add the number of earlier days in her habitual time and complete her fixed duration. Those will be the days of menstruation, and the rest will be menstrual irregular discharge. If she sees blood in her habitual time for 3 or more than three days, she will treat it as menstruation and act upon precaution in those days which she has included to complete her fixed duration.

And if she sees blood during some of her habitual days plus some days later, with signs of menstruation, and if the total number of days does not exceed ten, then all of it will be menstruation.

And if the total exceeds ten days, and if she sees blood in her habitual time less than three days, then she will add the number of later days in her habitual time so as to complete her fixed period of duration. These will then be the days of menstruation, and the rest will be classified as menstrual irregular discharge. If she sees blood in her habitual time for three or more than three days, she will treat it as menstruation and act upon precaution in those days after her habit which she has included to complete her fixed duration.

Rule no.480. If a woman has a fixed habit of menstruation and if she sees blood for 3 days or more, and then it stops and is thereafter seen again, and the gap between the two discharges is less than 10 days, and if the total number of days in which blood was seen together with the intermediary period in which it stopped exceeds 10 days (e.g. when blood is seen for 5 days and then stops for 5 days and is again seen on the following 5 days) then it has various rules:

(a) If the blood, all or part thereof, have the signs of menstruation, seen in the initial days was during the days of her habit and the blood seen later in the second phase after her temporary state of being pure did not come during the days of her habit, then she should treat her first blood to be menstruation and the second one as menstrual irregular discharge.

(b) If the blood seen in the initial days is not during the days of her habit but the second blood, all or part thereof, was seen in the days of her habit, then she should treat the entire second blood to be menstruation and the first as menstrual irregular discharge.

(c) If she saw a part of the first and the second blood during the days of her habit, and if the first blood did not last for less than 3 days, then that period along with the intervening days when she was pure and the second blood within her habitual time, will be period of menstruation, provided that the total period covered by them does not exceed 10 days. And some of the blood which she sees before or after the days of her habit will be classified as menstrual irregular discharge. For example, if her habit was to see blood from 3rd to 10th of every month, and during any one month the habit changed and she saw blood from 1st to 6th, and then remained pure for two days. Thereafter, she saw blood again until 15th. The rule will be that the blood seen from 3rd to 10th is menstruation, and that seen on 1st and 2nd and from 11th to 15th is menstrual irregular discharge.

(d) If she sees the blood in both phases during her habitual days, but the blood seen in the initial days is for less than three days, then it is plausible that she may add the days of earlier discharge to complete three days, and treat the period as menstruation. Then the second blood which also fell during habitual days will be counted as menstruation, provided that the total of the first and second phase, together with the intervening days does not exceed ten days. And if it exceeds ten days then the first blood will be of menstruation and the rest will be menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.481. If a woman with fixed habit of time and duration fails to see blood in her habit, and sees it earlier or later, it will be considered as menstruation if it comes for the equal number of days, and bears the signs of menstruation.

Rule no.482. If a woman who has the habit of time and duration sees blood in her habit for less or more than her usual number of days and then her blood stops and thereafter is seen again for days equal to the number of days of her habit with signs of menstruation, she will treat the whole period, including the intervening days, as menstruation, if it does not exceed ten days. And if the number of days exceeds ten, then the blood seen in her habitual period is menstruation and rest will be menstruated irregular discharge. And if the first blood is seen more than the days of her habit and most part of it bear the signs of menstruation, then all of the first blood will be treated as menstruation.

Rule no.483. If a woman who has fixed habit of time and duration sees blood for more than 10 days, the blood which she sees during the days of her habit is menstruation, even though it may not have the signs of menstruation, and the blood which is seen after the days of her habit is menstrual irregular discharge even though it may have the sign of menstruation. For example, if the blood of a woman whose habit is from the 1st to the 7th of the month is seen from the 1st to the 12th of a particular month, the blood which is seen during the first 7 days will be menstruation and that which is seen during the remaining 5 days will be menstrual irregular discharge.

Women having the habit of time only

Rule no.484. Women having the habit of time are of two types:

(1) A woman who sees blood in each of the two consecutive months on a fixed day, and then becomes pure after a few days. The duration of blood varies in each month. For example, if the blood is seen on the 1st of each month but stops on the 7th in the first month and on the 8th in the second month, her habit of time will be the first of every month.

(2) A woman who sees blood in two consecutive months on a fixed day, for, say 3 or more days and then it stops and thereafter is seen again, but the total number of days does not exceed ten days. However, the number of days during the 2nd month is either more or less than the days in the 1st month. For example, if the blood is seen on the 1st day of each of the two consecutive months but the total duration of days is 8 in the 1st month and 9 in the 2nd month, she should treat the 1st of the month to be her habit of time.

Rule no.485. If a woman who has the habit of time but the duration of her menstruation is not constant, sees blood of which some part bears the signs of menstruation and some does not, then in this situation if the blood having the signs of menstruation lasts for not less than three days and not more than ten days, then it is obligatory to treat herself as menstruating, and the blood which does not bears the signs of menstruation would be classified as menstrual irregular discharge. If she sees blood according to her habit and if it is possible for her to consider it menstruation, then she should act according to the rules regarding to menstruation, whether it bears the signs of menstruation or not. For example, she sees blood for three days according to her habit, it will be treated as menstruation, even if it does not have the signs of menstruation. Similarly if she sees blood two days earlier and one day on her habitual time, it will also be menstruation. So if she sees the blood with signs of menstruation lasting for less than ten days, all will be of menstruation. And if she sees blood again and bears the signs of menstruation, then if the gap between the commencement of the second blood and stoppage of the first blood is ten or more than ten days then that blood will also be menstruation, and otherwise it will be treated as menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.486. If a woman with the fixed habit of time sees blood not in her habitual time for more than 10 days and if she is unable to determine the exact duration of menstruation from its signs, then she should consider herself menstruating for six or seven days and rest will be treated as menstruated irregular discharge.

Rule no.487. A woman whose commencing time is fixed on the first of every month, with a varying duration of five or seven days, and then suddenly she sees blood for twelve days, and she is unable to recognise the signs to determine the duration of menstruation, then she should consider herself as menstruating from the first to the sixth or seventh of the month and the rest will be treated as menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.488. If a woman with a fixed habit knows the middle or the end of her habit and if she sees blood for more than ten days, then she should consider herself as menstruating for six or seven days in such a way that its middle or end is according to her habit.

Women having the habit of fixed duration

Rule no.489. Women having the habit of duration are of two types:

(1) A woman whose duration of menstruation in two consecutive months is same but the commencing times differ. In such circumstances her habit of duration will be the number of days during which blood is seen. For example, if blood is seen from the 1st to the 5th of the 1st month and from the 11th to the 15th of the 2nd month her duration habit will be 5 days.

(2) A woman who sees blood in two consecutive months for 3 or more days, and then it stops for a day or two and then it starts again, though the time of commencement of blood varies in the 2nd month from that of the 1st, her duration habit will be the number of days during which blood is seen, provided that the total number of the bleeding and pure days does not exceed ten and that the duration period in both the months remains equal. And it is not necessary that the number of intervening days should be equal in each month. For example, if during the 1st month she sees blood from the 1st to the 3rd day, and then it stops for 2 days or less or more than 2 days, and then sees blood again, and the total number of days including the intervening days does not exceeds 8, and in the 2nd month she sees it from the 11th to the 14th and then it stops for 2 days, and then starts again, and the total number of days including the intervening days does not exceeds 8, then her duration habit will be 8 days.

Rule no.490. If a woman with the fixed habit of duration sees blood with signs of menstruation for less or more days than her habitual duration, if the number of those days does not exceed 10 she should treat them as menstruation. And if it exceeds 10 days without any signs of menstruation, then she will calculate her time of menstruation from the day bleeding began with signs of menstruation till the days of her habit, and treat the rest of the days as of menstrual irregular discharge.

Women with disturbed menstruation, or Mudhtariba

Rule no.491. A mudhtariba is a woman who may have seen blood for some months, but did not form a fixed habit. If such a woman sees blood with signs of menstruation for more than 10 days, then ten days in first month and three days in second month will be classified as menstruation, and the rest of the days will be treated as of menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.492. If a mudhtariba sees blood for more than ten days, and if for some days the blood has the signs of menstruation and during other days has the signs of menstrual irregular discharge, and if the blood which has the signs of menstruation is seen for not less than 3 days and not more than 10 days, then all of it is menstruation. The rest will be menstrual irregular discharge. And if the blood having the signs of menstruation cannot be classified as menstruation, for example she sees blood for five days with signs of menstruation, and for five days with signs of menstrual irregular discharge, and again she sees blood for five days with signs of menstruation, then the blood with signs of menstruation if it can be classified as menstruation i.e. the blood not less than three days and not more than ten days, for both of them she should act upon precaution, and if the second blood does not bear the signs of menstruation it will be treated as menstrual irregular discharge. And if one of them can be classified as menstruation then it will be treated as menstruation and the rest will be menstrual irregular discharge.

The beginner, or Mubtadia

Rule no.493. A mubtadia is a woman who sees blood for the first time. If she sees it for more than ten days and all the blood has common signs of menstruation then she should refer to the prevailing habit among her relatives and consider her corresponding duration as menstruation and the rest as menstrual irregular discharge (istihadha), and if she does not find any woman in her family or if their habit differs, then she should classify the ten days of her first month as menstruation and in the second month treat the three days as menstruation, and act on precaution until the tenth day, and act according to that till the fixation of her habit.

Rule no.494. If a mubtadia sees blood for ten days, some bearing the signs of menstruation and other that of menstrual irregular discharge, and if the blood with the signs of menstruation is seen for not less than three and not more than ten days, then all that blood is menstruation. But if she sees blood again before the expiry of ten days after the blood with signs of menstruation, and even that blood resembles menstruation, for example, if dark blood is seen for five days and yellowish blood is seen for nine days, and dark blood is seen again for five days, as explained in the case of mudhtariba, she should treat the second blood as menstrual irregular discharge and act upon precaution for first and last blood.

Rule no.495. If a mubtadia sees blood for more than 10 days, some of which bearing signs of menstruation and other having signs of menstrual irregular discharge, and if the blood with the signs of menstruation is seen for less than 3 days, then all the blood is of menstrual irregular discharge.

A woman who has forgotten her habit, or Nasiya

Rule no.496. A nasiya is a woman who has forgotten her habit of time and duration. If she sees blood for not less than three and not more than ten days with signs of menstruation, she should treat it as menstruation. And if she sees blood exceeding ten days, then the duration about which she suspects as her habit she should treat it as menstruation and the rest will be treated as menstrual irregular discharge (istihadha). And if she suspects that the duration of her habit is from seven to ten days, then she should act upon precaution after the seventh day.

Various rules relating to menstruation

Rule no.497. If a mubtadia, a mudhtariba, a Nasiya or a woman with the fixed habit of duration, see blood with the signs of menstruation, they must abandon the obligatory prayers. But if they later understand that it was not menstruation, they have to offer the Qadha of the prayers they did not perform.

Rule no.498. If a woman has a fixed habit of menstruation, either of time or of duration or of both, and if she sees blood for two consecutive months contrary to her usual habit in which she finds that the time, the duration or both coincide then she has formed a new habit. For example, if previously she saw blood from 1st to 7th of a month but during these two months she saw it from the 10th to 17th, then the period from 10th to 17th of the month will be her new habit.

Rule no.499. "One month" means the expiry of 30 days from the date of commencement of menstruation and not the period from the first to the last date of a month.

Rule no.500. If a woman usually sees blood once in a month, but in a particular month she sees it twice with signs of menstruation, and if the number of intervening days during which she remained pure is not less than 10 she should treat both as periods of menstruation.

Rule no.501. If a woman sees blood with signs of menstruation for 3 or more days and thereafter for 10 or more days she sees blood with the signs of menstrual irregular discharge and again she sees blood with signs of menstruation for 3 days, she should treat the first and last bleeding as menstruation.

Rule no.502. If a woman becomes pure before the expiry of 10 days and feels that there is no blood in her interior part she should perform the ritual bath for the acts of worship although she may have a feeling that blood might appear once again before the completion of 10 days. And if she is absolutely sure that she will see blood before the lapse of 10 days, then she should not perform the bath.

Rule no.503. If a woman becomes pure before 10 days but feels that there might be blood in her interior part, she should insert cotton and wait for some time to find out. If she finds out that she has become pure she should take the bath and perform her acts of worship. And if she finds out that she has not become pure totally, and she does not have a fixed habit of menstruation or if her habit is 10 days, then she will wait. If she becomes pure before ten days, she will take the bath. If she becomes pure on completion of 10 days, or if her bleeding exceeds ten days, then she will have the bath at the end of tenth day. And if her habit is for less than 10 days, and she is sure that the blood will cease before ten days are over, or by the end of the tenth day, she must not take the bath until then. And if she has a feeling that her bleeding might exceed ten days, she should avoid acts of worship for a day. And later it is allowed to act according to rules relating to a woman in the state of irregular menstrual discharge (istihadha), and as a precaution she should refrain from all those acts which are forbidden to the menstruating woman and fulfil the obligations of a mustahadha until the tenth day. But this rule applies to those women who have continuous bleeding before the days of her habit. Otherwise, it is not permissible to neglect worship after the days of habit are over.

Rule no.504. If a woman treats the blood she saw during certain days as menstruation and did not perform her acts of worship and comes to know later that it was not menstruation, she should offer Qadha of the lapsed prayers and fasts. And if she performs acts of worship under the impression that the blood is not menstruation but realises later that it was menstruation, then the fasts kept in those days will be void and therefore she should offer Qadha of those fasts.

Lochia - blood discharge due to childbirth (Nifas)

Rule no.505. From the time when the first limb of the baby appears, the blood seen by the mother is lochia, provided that it stops before or on completion of the tenth day. While in the condition of lochia, a woman is called Nafisa.

Rule no.506. The blood which a mother sees before the appearance of the first limb of the child is not lochial discharge.

Rule no.507. It is not necessary that the baby is fully grown. Even if a deficient baby is born, the blood seen by the mother for ten days will be lochia. The term 'Childbirth' must be applicable to it.

Rule no.508. It is possible that lochia blood may be discharged for an instant only, but it never exceeds 10 days.

Rule no.509. If a woman doubts whether she has aborted something or not, or whether the thing aborted is a child or not, it is not necessary for her to investigate, and the blood which is discharged in this situation is not lochia in Islamic Law.

Rule no.510. On the basis of precaution, halting or pausing in a mosque and other acts which are prohibited for a woman during menstruation are also prohibited for the Nafisa (woman in the state of lochial discharge) and those acts which are obligatory for a woman in menstruation are also obligatory for the Nafisa.

Rule no.511. Divorcing a woman who is in the state of lochial discharge and having sexual intercourse with her is prohibited. However, if her husband has sexual intercourse with her, expiation is not obligatory.

Rule no.512. When a woman becomes pure from lochia, she should perform the ritual bath and perform the acts of worship. And if she sees blood again, and the total number of days in which blood is seen and the intervening days during which she remains pure is 10 or less than 10, then all of it will be lochia. So, if she had kept fasts during the intervening days, she will offer their Qadha.

Rule no.513. If a woman becomes pure from lochia, but feels that there might be blood in the interior part, she should insert some cotton, and wait till she finds out. If she finds herself pure then she should perform the bath for the acts of worship.

Rule no.514. If lochial blood is seen by a mother for more than 10 days and she has a fixed habit of menstruation, then her lochia will be equal to the duration of menstruation and the rest would be menstrual irregular discharge. And, if she does not have a fixed habit of menstruation, she would take the days for lochia as according to the habit of women in her family, and act upon precaution till the tenth day.

For a woman who has a fixed habit of menstruation, it is a recommended precaution to act as a mustahadha from the day after her habit is over, and at the same time refrain from acts forbidden to one in the state of lochial discharge until the 18th day. And for a woman with no fixed habit of menstruation, this recommended precaution applies from the tenth to the eighteenth day since the childbirth.

Rule no.515. If the habit of menstruation of a woman is less than 10 days and blood is seen for more days than the days of her menstruation, she should treat the days equal to the days of her habit as lochia. After that, it is obligatory on her to refrain from prayers for one day, and after that she has a choice either to leave out her prayers for ten days or act according to the rules of menstrual irregular discharge. And if the blood continues to be seen even after 10 days, then all the days in excess of her habit, up to the tenth day, will be menstrual irregular discharge and she should offer Qadha of the acts of worship which she did not perform during those days. For example, if the menstruation duration of a woman has always been 6 days and her blood comes for more than 6 days, she should treat 6 days as lochial discharge and on the 7th day leave out her prayers, and on the 8th, 9th and 10th day, it will be her choice either to abstain from all acts of worship or adopt the rules of menstrual irregular discharge. And if she sees blood for more than ten days, all the days in excess of her habitual duration of menstruation will be treated as the days of menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.516. If a woman with a fixed habit of menstruation sees blood continuously for a month or more after giving birth to a child, the blood seen for the days equal to her menstruation habit will be lochial discharge, and the blood seen after that for ten days will be menstrual irregular discharge, even if it coincides with the dates of her monthly menstruation. For example, if there is a woman whose fixed menstruation habit is from the 20th to 27th of every month and she gives birth on the 10th of a given month, and she continues to see blood for a month or more; her lochia will be seven days, equal to her menstruation days, and will be from 10th to 17th of that month; the blood which she continues to see from the 17th onwards for ten days will be menstrual irregular discharge, even though it falls in her days of menstruation habit. After the lapse of 10 days, if bleeding continues, then it is menstruation if it falls in the days of habit, irrespective of whether it has the signs of menstruation or not. And if bleeding does not occur in the days of menstruation habit but have the signs of menstruation, it will be treated as menstruation. After the lapse of 10 days of lochial discharge, if bleeding continues and it does not fall in the days of habit, and neither does it possess the signs of menstruation, it will be menstrual irregular discharge.

Rule no.517. If a woman does not have a fixed habit of duration, and if after giving birth she sees blood continuously for a month or more, the rules mentioned above will apply to the first 10 days; and as for the next 10 days it is menstrual irregular discharge. And as regards the blood seen thereafter, if it possess the signs of menstruation or if it coincides with the dates of her monthly menstruation then it will be classified as menstruation.