Recommended ritual baths

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Recommended ritual baths

Rule no.642. In Islam, several baths are recommended. Some of them are listed below:

(1) Bath of Friday: Its time starts after the Adhan (calling) of Dawn prayer, but it is better to perform it near midday. If, however, a person does not perform it till noon, he can perform it till dusk without an intention of either performing it on time or as Qadha. And if a person does not perform his bath on Friday it is recommended that he should perform the Qadha of the bath on Saturday at any time between dawn and dusk. And if a person knows that it will not be possible for him to procure water for his bath on Friday he can perform the bath on Thursday with the intention of Raja', that is, as a desirable act. And it is recommended to recite the following supplication while performing the Friday bath:

Ash hadu an la ilaha il lal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluh. Alla humma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad waj'alni minat tawwabina waj'alni minal mutatahhirin. (I testify that there is none to be worshipped but Allah alone, Who has no associate and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and his Progeny. And make me one of those who are repentant and pure).

(2) Baths of the 1st and 17th nights and in the earlier part of the 19th, 21st, 23rd nights and 24th night of the holy month of Ramadhan.

(3) Bath on Eidul Fitr day and Eidul Azha day. The time of this bath is from the beginning of dawn prayer up to midday, and after midday up to sunset it can be performed with an intention of Raja'. It is, however, better to perform it before Eid prayer.

(4) Bath on Eidul Fitr night. The time of this bath is from sunset up to the beginning of dawn time, it is better to perform it in the earliest part of the night.

(5) Bath on the 8th and 9th of the month of Dhul-Hijj. As regards the bathing on the 9th of Dhul-Hijj it is better to perform it near midday.

(6) Bath by a person who had not offered Prayer of Phenomena intentionally, when it was a total lunar or solar eclipse.

(7) Bath by a person who has touched a dead body after it has been given its bath.

(8) Bath for Ihram (pilgrim's dress).

(9) Bath for entering into the sanctuary of Makkah.

(10) Bath for entry into Makkah.

(11) Bath for visiting the holy Ka'bah.

(12) Bath for entry into the holy Ka'bah.

(13) Bath for slaughtering an animal and for shaving one's head (during pilgrimage).

(14) Bath for entry into Madinah.

(15) Bath for entry into the sanctuary of the holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

(16) Bath at the time of bidding farewell to the sacred shrine of the holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

(17) Bath for Mubahala (imprecation) with the enemy.

(18) Bath given to a new-born child.

(19) Bath for Istikhara .

(20) Bath for offering Istisqa' (invocation for rains.)

(21) Bath at the time of total solar eclipse.

(22) Bath for visiting the shrine of Imam Hussain (A.S.) done with the intention of Raja. However in some particular days bath for the Ziyarah of Imam Hussain (A.S.) is recommended, whether from near or far.

Rule no.643. The jurists have mentioned many more recommended baths, some of which are as follows:

(1) Bath on all odd nights of the month of Ramadhan and on each of its last 10 nights and a second bath in the last part of its 23rd night.

(2) Bath on the 24th day of Dhul-Hijj.

(3) Bath on the day of Eid-i-Nawroz and 15th of Sha'ban and 9th and 17th of Rabi'ul Awwal and the 25th day of Dhul-Qa'dah.

(4) Bath by a woman who has perfumed herself for someone other than her husband.

(5) Bath by one who slept in a state of intoxication.

(6) Bath by a person who went to see a hanging and saw the hanged person. However, if he sees him by chance or helplessly, or if he had gone for example, to give evidence, the bath will not be recommended for him.

(7) Bath for entry into the mosque of the holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.).

(8) Bath for the Ziyarah of the Masoomeen (A.S.) whether from near or far. It is better these baths should be done with the intention of 'Raja', (i.e. with a hope that it might be a desirable act).

Rule no. 644. If a person wishes to perform a number of recommended baths, one bath with the intention of performing all the baths will be sufficient.

Dry ablution or Tayammum

Dry ablution should be performed instead of ablution or ritual bath in the following seven circumstances:

First: When it is not possible to procure sufficient water for performing ablution or bath.

Rule no.645. If a person happens to be in a populated area, as a precaution, he should make his best efforts to procure water for ablution or bath until such time that he loses all hope. And if he happens to be in an uninhabited area and the land is uneven or densely wooded, and it is difficult to walk, he should search for water in all the four directions for a distance covered by one throw of an arrow from a bow as used in olden times. (One throw is equal to about two hundred steps as described by Allamah Majlasi Awwal in his book on the commentary of Sheikh Sudduq’s “Man La Yahdhurhul-Faqeeh”). Otherwise (if the land is even or not densely wooded such as to make it difficult for him to walk), he should search for water in all the four directions for a distance covered by two throws of an arrow (as explained above).

Rule no.646. If out of the four directions, some are even and others are uneven, one should search for water in the even direction to the extent of two arrow throws, and in the direction which is uneven to the extent of one arrow throw.

Rule no.647. It is not necessary for a person to search for water in the direction where he is sure that water is not available.

Rule no.648. If the time left for prayer is not short, and he has also time to search for water and he is sure that water is available at a farther place than the distance obligatory for the search of water, he should go there to procure water. And if he has a mere suspicion about water being there, then it is not necessary for him to go. But if he has a strong suspicion and is confident, then he should go there to procure water.

Rule no.649. It is not necessary that a person should go himself in search of water. He can send a reliable person for this purpose. And it is sufficient if one person goes on behalf of many.

Rule no.650. If a person feels that there might be some water in the provision he carries or at the place of encampment or even in the convoy, he should search for it thoroughly, till he is satisfied that there is no water or he becomes hopeless.

Rule no.651. If a person searched for water before the time for prayer, but did not find it and if he stayed there until the time of prayers set in, he should search for water again, as a recommended precaution, if he feels that water may be found.

Rule no.652. If a person searched for water after the time for prayer had set in, and did not find it, if he stayed there until the time for the next prayers, and if he feels there is a possibility of water being found, the recommended precaution is that he should go in search of water again.

Rule no.653. When the time left for prayers is short or when there is fear of thieves or wild beasts or when the search for water is unbearable, it is not necessary for one to search for water.

Rule no.654. If a person does not search for water until the time for prayer remaining is very short, such a person has committed a sin, but the prayer which he will pray with dry ablution will be valid.

Rule no.655. If a person is sure that he cannot get water and therefore does not go in search of water, and he offers his prayers with dry ablution, but realises after prayers that if he had made an effort he could have water, and if there is enough time he must do ablution (after his search) and repeat the prayer.

Rule no.656. If a person could not get water after a search and prayed with dry ablution and then learns later after offering prayers that water was available at the place where he had searched, and if there is enough time he must do ablution and repeat the prayer.

Rule no.657. If a person believed that the time left for prayers was little, and prayed with dry ablution without going in search of water, but later learnt after the prayers before the expiry of time that there was time for a search of water, then the obligatory precaution is that he should repeat that prayer.

Rule no.658. If the time for prayer has set in and a person is already with ablution, and he knows that he will not be able to find water or he will not be able to do ablution again, he should not invalidate his ablution, if he can keep his ablution intact. However, a man can have sexual intercourse with his wife even if he knows that he will not be able to perform the bath.

Rule no.659. If a person is with ablution before the time for prayers set in, and knew that if he made his ablution void, it would not be possible for him to get water, in this situation, as a recommended precaution, if he can keep his ablution intact he should not invalidate the ablution.

Rule no.660. If a person has just sufficient water for ablution or for bath, and if he knows that if he spills it he will not be able to get water again, it is prohibited for him to spill it if the time for prayers has already set in, and the recommended precaution is that he should not throw it away even before the time for prayers sets in.

Rule no.661. If a person knew that he would not get water, and yet after the time for prayers had set in he made his ablution void or spilled the water which he had with him, he has committed a sin but his prayer with dry ablution will be in order. However, the obligatory precaution is that he should offer the Qadha of the prayer.

Second:

Rule no.662. If a person is unable to procure water on account of old age, or fear of a thief or a beast, or because he does not possess means to draw water from a well, he should perform dry ablution. The same would apply if acquiring water is intolerably difficult in popular opinion. But in this last situation, if a person did not perform dry ablution, and did ablution, his ablution will be valid.

Rule no.663. If a bucket, a rope and other similar implements are needed for pulling water out of a well, and the person concerned is obliged to purchase or hire them, he should do so even if he has to pay much more than the usual rate. Similarly, he has to buy the water even if it is sold at a higher price. However, if by doing so, his economic condition is harmed, then it is not obligatory to procure them.

Rule no.664. If a person is obliged to take a loan for procuring water he should take the loan. However, if he knows or feels that it will not be possible for him to repay the loan it is not obligatory for him to take a loan.

Rule no.665. If digging a well does not involve much hardship the person concerned should dig a well to get water.

Rule no.666. If he is given water by another person without any obligation he should accept it.

Third:

Rule no.667. If a person fears that if he uses water his life will be endangered, or he will suffer from some ailment or physical defect, or the illness from which he is already suffering will be prolonged, or become acute or some complications may arise in its treatment, he should perform dry ablution. However, if warm water is not harmful to him, he should use warm water and perform ablution or ritual bath.

Rule no.668. It is not necessary to be absolutely certain that water is harmful to him. If he feels that there is a probability of harm, and if that probability is justified by popular opinion, giving cause for some fear, then he should perform dry ablution.

Rule no.669. If a person has an eye disease and water is harmful to him he should perform dry ablution.

Rule no.670. If a person performs dry ablution on account of certainty or fear about water being harmful to him but realises before prayer that it is not harmful, his dry ablution is void. And if he realises this after having prayed he should offer the prayer again with ablution or bath. And if the time for prayer has passed then Qadha is not obligatory on him.

Rule no.671. If a person was sure that water was not harmful to him, and he performed the bath or ablution, but later realised that water was harmful to him, and if the harmful effects are not so severe and did not become prohibited then his ablution and bath will be in order.

Fourth:

Rule no.672. If a person fears that if he uses water for bath or ablution, he will be involved in hardship, he should perform dry ablution. Dry ablution is permissible in the following three cases:

(1) If he fears that by using up the water for the bath or ablution he will suffer an acute thirst immediately, which may result in his illness or death, or it may cause intolerable hardship.

(2) If he fears that his dependents whose protection is his responsibility, may become ill or die due to thirst.

(3) If he fears that others, human beings or animals, may die or suffer some illness or become unbearably restless and distressed due to lack of water.

Apart from these three conditions mentioned, it is not permissible to perform dry ablution when water is available.

Rule no.673. If besides the pure water which a person has for ablution or bath he also has impure water required for drinking for him and other people attached to him, he should keep the pure water for drinking and pray with dry ablution. If water is required for an animal or a minor child, it should be given the impure water to drink and pure water be used for ablution or bath.

Fifth:

Rule no.674. If the body or dress of a person is impure and he possesses only as much water as is likely to be exhausted if he performs the bath or ablution, and no water would be available for making his body or dress pure, as an obligatory precaution, he should make his body or dress pure and offer prayer with dry ablution. But if he does not have anything upon which he would do dry ablution, then he should use the water for bath and ablution, and pray with impure body or dress.

Sixth:

Rule no.675. If a person does not possess any water or container except such water or container which is prohibited to use, like when they are usurped, he should perform dry ablution instead of bath and ablution.

Seventh:

Rule no.676. When the time left for prayer is so little that if a person performs the bath or ablution he would be obliged to offer the entire prayer or a part of it after the prescribed time, he should perform dry ablution.

Rule no.677. If a person intentionally delays offering the prayer till no time are left for the bath or ablution, he commits a sin, but the prayer offered by him with dry ablution will be valid, although the recommended precaution is that he should offer the Qadha of the prayer.

Rule no.678. If a person doubts whether any time will be left for prayer if he performs the bath or ablution, he should perform dry ablution.

Rule no.679. If a person performs dry ablution owing to shortage of time and after the prayer he had an opportunity to do ablution but did not do so until the water he had is no longer with him, and if in this situation his obligation is dry ablution, then he will have to perform a new dry ablution for the subsequent prayers, even if the first dry ablution had not become void.

Rule no.680. If a person has water, but because of shortage of time he prays with dry ablution and while in prayers, the water he had goes out of his possession, he will, as per recommended precaution, perform dry ablution again for the subsequent prayers, provided that his religious obligation continues to be dry ablution.

Rule no.681. If a person has only just enough time that he may perform ablution or bath and offers prayers without its recommended acts like Iqamah and personal supplications, he should perform the bath or ablution, and pray without those recommended parts. In fact, if for that purpose, he has to avoid the recitation of the second chapter of the holy Qur’an after al-Hamd, as an obligatory precaution, he should avoid so after performing ablution or bath.

Things on which dry ablution is allowed

Rule no.682. Dry ablution can be done on earth, sand, lump of clay or stone but the recommended precaution is that if earth is available dry ablution should not be performed on anything else. If earth is not available, then it can be performed on sand or a lump of clay, and in absence of these on a stone. As a precaution, stone will be preferred to lump of clay.

Rule no.683. Dry ablution can also be done on gypsum or lime-stone. It is also an obligatory precaution that baked gypsum, lime, brick and mineral stones are not used for dry ablution optionally.

Rule no.684. If a person cannot find earth, sand, lump of clay or stone, he should perform dry ablution on dust particles which settle on the carpets or the dresses, and if that is not available, then he should perform dry ablution on mud, and in both situations it is an obligatory precaution that if possible he should do dry ablution on the above mentioned things (baked gypsum, lime, brick and mineral stones) also. And if dust or wet mud are also not available he should perform dry ablution on any of the above mentioned things, and if none of these things are available, on the basis of recommended precaution, he should pray without dry ablution, but it is an obligatory precaution to repeat the prayers later as Qadha and it is recommended to offer the prayer again within time of prayer.

Rule no.685. If a person can gather some earth by shaking the carpet etc. then dry ablution on dust particles will be void. And similarly if he can make mud dry and obtain earth from it, then dry ablution on wet mud will be void.

Rule no.686. If a person does not have water, but has snow or ice he should, if possible, melt it into water and perform ablution or bath. And if it is not possible to do so and also he does not have anything on which dry ablution is allowed. Then it is better that he should make the parts of ablution or bath wet with snow or ice. And if even this is not possible he should perform dry ablution on snow or ice and offer prayer in time. And as an obligatory precaution, repeat the prayer later as Qadha

Rule no.687. If a thing like straw, on which dry ablution is void, gets mixed with clay and sand, then the person concerned cannot perform dry ablution on it. However, if it is so little that it gets lost in the sand or clay, then dry ablution with it is valid.

Rule no.688. If a person does not own anything on which dry ablution is permissible he should, if possible, obtain it.

Rule no.689. Performing dry ablution on mud wall is valid but the recommended precaution is that if dry earth or clay is available, dry ablution should not be performed on wet earth or mud.

Rule no.690. The thing on which a person performs dry ablution should be pure and, if he has no pure thing on which dry ablution would be correct, it is not obligatory for him to offer prayers. He should, however, give its Qadha, though it is an obligatory precaution, he should pray within the prescribed time.

Rule no.691. If a person was sure that dry ablution on a particular thing was valid and he did it accordingly, but came to know later that dry ablution performed was void, he would repeat the prayers performed with that dry ablution.

Rule no.692. It is necessary that the thing used for dry ablution and the area where it is placed should not have been usurped, or obtained without the owner's permission. So if he performs dry ablution on usurped earth etc. or with that earth which is his own but places on an area without its owner’s permission, his dry ablution will be void.

Rule no.693. If a person performs dry ablution on a usurped object, or in a usurped area or space, or on a thing placed in usurped property, forgetfully or by way of negligence, his dry ablution will be valid. However, if a person himself usurps something, and then forgets that he has usurped it and performs dry ablution, or usurped some property and then forgets and then places the thing on which he is doing ablution on that usurped property, or performs dry ablution in that usurped property, his dry ablution will be void.

Rule no.694. If a person is imprisoned in a usurped place and both the water and earth of that place are usurped, he should offer prayer with dry ablution.

Rule no.695. The thing on which a person is performing dry ablution should, if possible, on the basis of precaution, have dust particles which would stick to the hands, and after striking hands on it, as an obligatory precaution, one should shake off the particles from ones hands.

Rule no.696. It is hateful to perform dry ablution on the earth of a pit, and street dust, or the saline earth, on which a layer of salt has not settled. If, however, a layer of salt has settled on the earth, performance of dry ablution on it is void.

Method of performing dry ablution instead of ritual bath or ablution

Rule no.697. The following four things are obligatory in dry ablution performed instead of bath or ablution.

(1) Intention (niyyah)

(2) Striking together both the palms on the object on which dry ablution is valid

(3) Wiping from the spot where the hair of one's head grow down to the eyebrows and above the nose and the entire forehead and its two ends with the palms of both the hands. And as a precaution the palms pass over the eyebrows as well.

(4) To pass the left palm over the whole back of the right hand and thereafter, to pass the right palm over the whole of the back of the left hand.

Rule no.698. The recommended precaution is that dry ablution, whether it is instead of bath or ablution, should be performed in the following order: firstly, he should strike the hands on the earth to wipe the forehead and the back of the hands, and then strike the hands on the earth once again to wipe the back of the hands.

Rules relating to dry ablution

Rule no.699. If a person leaves out even a small part of his forehead or the back of his hands in dry ablution, regardless of whether forgetfully or intentionally, or even due to ignorance, his dry ablution will be void. However, it is not necessary to be very particular; if it can be ordinarily assumed that the forehead and the backs of the hands have been wiped, it would be sufficient.

Rule no.700. In order to be sure that the backs of the hands have been wiped, wiping should be done from slightly above the wrist, but wiping in between the fingers is not necessary.

Rule no.701. As a precaution, the forehead and the backs of the hands should be wiped downwards from above, and their acts should be performed one after the other. If someone interrupts the sequence so much that it could not be said that he is doing dry ablution, then the dry ablution will be void.

Rule no.702. The person concerned should specify while making the intention that a particular dry ablution is instead of ablution or bath. And if it is instead of a bath then he should specify the bath. And if he fails to determine correctly the purpose of one dry ablution which is obligatory upon him, due to some error, it will be correct if he makes the intention that he is discharging his religious obligation.

Rule no.703. As an obligatory precaution, if possible, the palm of the hands and the backs of the hands of a person wishing to do dry ablution should be pure.

Rule no.704. While performing dry ablution one should remove the ring one is wearing and also remove if anything is stuck on his forehead or on the palms or back of his hands.

Rule no.705. If a person has a wound on his forehead or on the back of his hands and if it is tied with a bandage or something else, which cannot be removed, he should wipe his hands over it. And if the palm of his hand is wounded and it is bandaged in such a way that it cannot be removed, he should strike his bandaged hands on a thing with which it is permissible to perform dry ablution and then wipe his forehead and the back of his hands.

Rule no.706. There is no harm if there is hair on the forehead or on the back of hands. However, if the hairs of his head fall on his forehead then it should be pushed back.

Rule no.707. If one feels that one has some obstruction on his forehead or on the palm or back of his hands, and if his suspicion is valid among the people, then one should verify and ensure that the obstruction is removed.

Rule no.708. If the obligation of a person is dry ablution but he cannot perform it himself, he should solicit assistance. And the one who assists should make him perform dry ablution with his own hands. However, if this is not possible, the assistant should strike his hands on a thing on which it is lawful to perform dry ablution and then wipe it on the person's forehead and hands.

Rule no.709. If a man doubts while performing dry ablution whether or not he has forgotten a certain part of it, after he has passed that stage, he should ignore his doubt, and if that stage has not yet passed, he should perform that part.

Rule no.710. If, after wiping the left hand, a man doubts whether or not he has performed his dry ablution correctly, and if there is a probability that while performing dry ablution he was bothered about that, his dry ablution is valid. But if his doubt is about the wiping of the left hand, he should wipe the left hand except when he has done some act which requires ablution or bath or if enough time has passed.

Rule no.711. A person whose obligation is dry ablution, he cannot do dry ablution for the prayer before the time of prayer sets in. However, if he performs dry ablution for some other obligatory or recommended act and his excuse (on account of which his religious obligation is dry ablution) continues until the time for prayers sets in, he can offer his prayers with that dry ablution.

Rule no.712. If a person whose obligation is dry ablution knows that his excuse will continue until the end of the time of prayer, he can offer prayers with dry ablution even if there is ample time for offering prayer. But, if he knows that his excuse will cease to exist by the end of the time he should wait and offer prayers with ablution or bath. In fact, if he has a glimmer of hope that his excuse might be removed, it will be obligatory for him to wait and pray with ablution or bath, or when time falls short, he should do dry ablution and pray.

Rule no.713. If a person, who cannot perform ablution or ritual bath, is sure or considers it probable that his excuse will not be removed, he can offer the Qadha of his past prayers with dry ablution. However, if his excuse is removed afterwards, he should offer those prayers again with ablution or bath.

Rule no.714. It is permissible for a person who cannot perform the bath or ablution to offer with dry ablution the recommended prayers like the daily recommended prayers for which the time is fixed. However, if he has hope that his excuse may cease to exist before the time for prayers is over then it is better that he should not offer the recommended prayers during the earlier part of their time.

Rule no.715. If a person performs Jabeera ritual bath and dry ablution as a measure of precaution (for example, when he has a wound on his back), and offers prayer after the bath and dry ablution, and after having prayed he voids his ablution (for example, by urinating), as a precaution, he should do dry ablution instead of taking the bath and also perform ablution for subsequent prayers.

Rule no.716. If a person performs dry ablution on account of non-availability of water or because of some other excuse his dry ablution becomes void as soon as that excuse ceases to exist.

Rule no.717. The things which invalidate ablution invalidate the dry ablution performed instead of ablution also. Similarly, the things which invalidate the ritual bath invalidate the dry ablution performed instead of the bath also.

Rule no.718. If one has upon him several obligatory baths, but he cannot perform them, it is permissible for him to perform one dry ablution instead of all those baths, but the recommended precaution is that for each of those baths he should perform a separate dry ablution.

Rule no.719. If a person who cannot perform a ritual bath wishes to perform an act for which the bath is obligatory, he should perform dry ablution instead of the bath. And a person who cannot perform ablution wishes to perform an act for which ablution is obligatory; he should perform dry ablution instead of ablution.

Rule no.720. If a person performs dry ablution instead of the bath of sexual ritual impurity (janabah) it is not necessary for him to perform ablution for offering prayer. However, if he performs dry ablution instead of the other baths, then he should do ablution also. And if he cannot do ablution, he should do another dry ablution instead of ablution.

Rule no.721. If a person performs dry ablution instead of the bath of sexual ritual impurity (janabah) and later he commits acts which makes ablution void, and if he still cannot do bath for later prayers, he should do dry ablution instead of the bath, and as a recommended precaution, perform dry ablution also.

Rule no.722. If a person whose obligation is to perform dry ablution instead of ablution or bath so as to fulfil an act like offering prayers, and if in the first dry ablution he makes an intention to perform it instead of ablution or instead of the bath, and performs the second dry ablution with the intention of carrying out his religious obligation, it is sufficient.

Rule no.723. If a person whose obligation is dry ablution performs dry ablution for an act, he can perform all those acts which should be done with ablution or bath, as long as his dry ablution and the excuse remain. However, if his excuse was shortage of prayer time, or if he performed dry ablution for a funeral prayer or to go to sleep even with water being available, then his dry ablution is valid for those acts only for which he has done it.

Rule no.724. In some cases it is better that a person should offer Qadha for the prayers which he had offered with dry ablution:

(a) When he was afraid of harm caused by using water and yet intentionally entered the state of sexual ritual impurity (janabah) and offered prayers with dry ablution.

(b) When he knew or suspected that he would not be able to procure water and yet entered the state of sexual ritual impurity (janabah) intentionally and offered prayers with dry ablution.

(c) When he did not go in search of water until the time for prayers became short and he offered the prayers with dry ablution, and learnt later that if he had made a search for water he would have been able to procure it.

(d) When he delayed offering prayers intentionally and offered it with dry ablution at the end of its time.

(e) When he used or wasted the water, although he knew or suspected that he would not be able to get water, and then offered the prayers with dry ablution.