Things which invalidate prayer

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Things which invalidate prayer

Rule no.1121. Twelve things make prayer void and they are called the Mubtilat, or the Invalidators of prayer.

First Invalidator: If any of the pre-requisites of prayer ceases to exist while one is in prayer. For example, if he comes to know that the dress with which he has covered himself is usurped.

Second Invalidator: If a person, intentionally or by mistake or uncontrollably, commits an act that makes his ablution or ritual bath void. For example, if urine is discharged. But if a person is incontinent, unable to control urine or excretion, his prayer will not be void if he acts according to the rules explained earlier in the chapter of ablution. Similarly, if a woman sees blood of irregular menstrual discharge during prayer, her prayer is not invalidated if she has acted according to the rules of irregular menstrual discharges.

Rule no.1122. If a person sleeps involuntarily, not knowing whether he slept during prayer or afterwards, he should repeat the prayer.

Rule no.1123. If a person knows that he slept voluntarily, but doubts whether he slept after or during the prayer, or if he forgot during the prayer that he was praying and fell asleep, his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1124. If a person wakes up in prostration, and doubts whether he is in the prostration of the prayer or in the prostration for thanksgiving, he should pray again if he slept involuntarily. But if he slept intentionally and feels that he probably slept during the prostration of prayer due to carelessness, his prayer is valid.

Third Invalidator: If a person folds his hands, it will invalidate his prayer.

Rule no.1125. There is no harm if a person places one hand on another forgetfully, or due to helplessness, or Taqiyyah, or for some other purpose like scratching.

Fourth Invalidator: The fourth thing that invalidates prayer is to say 'Ameen' after chapter al-Hamd. There is no harm if someone utters it by mistake or under Taqiyyah.

Fifth Invalidator: The fifth thing that invalidates prayer is to turn one’s back towards Qibla, whether intentionally or forgetfully, or to turn away from Qibla, towards the right or left side. In fact, if one deviates from Qibla to an extent that people cannot say he is facing Qibla, his prayer is void, even if he has not deviated towards the right or left of Qibla completely.

Rule no.1126. If a person turns his head away from Qibla intentionally or forgetfully and deviates towards the right or left side of Qibla, his prayer is void. But if the turning of head, whether intentionally or erroneously, is so minimal that people cannot say that he is not facing Qibla, his prayer is in order. But if he turns his head so much that it can be said that he is not facing Qibla, his prayer would be void, even if he has not deviated to the right or left side of Qibla completely. But in the last situation, the prayer becomes invalidated only when turning away from Qibla is intentional.

Sixth Invalidator: The sixth thing that invalidates prayer is to talk intentionally, even uttering a single word consisting of one or more letters, and even if it does not have any meaning.

Rule no.1127. If a person forgetfully utters a word consisting of one or more letters and that word may carry some meaning, his prayer does not become void, but it is necessary that after the prayer he should perform prostration of forgetfulness, as will be explained later.

Rule no.1128. There is no harm in coughing, belching or heaving a sigh during the prayer. If someone utters 'Oh' or 'Ah' etc. purposely, his prayer will be void.

Rule no.1129. If a person utters a word with the intention of dhikr of Allah, for example if he says “Allahu Akbar”, and raises his voice to indicate something, there is no harm in it. In fact, there is no harm if he utters with the intention of dhikr with the knowledge that it will convey something to one who hears it.

Rule no.1130. There is no harm in reciting the Qur'an, except the four verses which make prostration obligatory, and reciting supplications during the prayer. However, the recommended precaution is that one should not recite supplications in any language other than Arabic.

Rule no.1131. If a person intentionally repeats parts of chapter al-Hamd, and the other chapter, and the dhikr of prayer, without intending them to be a part of the prayer or as a matter of some precaution, there is no harm in it.

Rule no.1132. A person offering prayer should not greet anyone with Salaam, and if another person says Salaam to him, as an obligatory precaution he should use the same words in reply without adding anything to it. For example, if someone says “Salamun alaykum”, he should also say “Salamun 'alaykum” in reply. But if someone initiated Salam saying “Alaykumus Salam”, then the response can be given in any of the phrases.

Rule no.1133. It is necessary that the reply to Salaam is given at once, irrespective of whether one is praying or not. And if, whether intentionally or due to forgetfulness, he delays the reply to the Salaam, so much that if he gives a reply after the delay, it may not be reckoned to be a reply to that Salaam, then he should not reply if he is in prayer. And if he is not in prayer it is not obligatory for him to reply.

Rule no.1134. A person should reply to a Salaam in a way that one who greets him can hear it. However, if he who says Salaam is deaf or passes away quickly, then it is sufficient to make a reply as usual.

Rule no.1135. It is not obligatory that a person who is in prayer respond to Salaam with the intention of prayers or blessing, meaning "May Allah bless You". But if he responds with the intention of greeting there is no problem.

Rule no.1136. If a woman or a non-Mahram or a discerning child, that is, one who can distinguish between good and evil, says Salaam to a person in prayer, the person can respond. However, in reply to the Salaam by a woman who says “Salamun alayk”, the person offering prayers should say “Salamun alayk”, not giving Fatha, Kasra or Dhamma to the letter “Kaf” at the end.

Rule no.1137. If a person in prayer does not respond to Salaam, his prayer is in order, though he will have committed a sin.

Rule no.1138. If a person says Salaam to a person in prayer in a mistaken way, such that it cannot be treated as a Salaam, it is not permissible to reply to it.

Rule no.1139. It is not obligatory to give reply to the Salaam said in jest, or the Salaam of a non-Muslim man or woman who is not a Dhimmi (an infidel living under the protection of an Islamic Government). And if he is a Dhimmi, it is sufficient, on the basis of obligatory precaution, to answer saying “alayk” only.

Rule no.1140. If a person says Salaam to a group of people, it is obligatory for all of them to give a reply. However, if one of them replies it is sufficient.

Rule no.1141. If a person says Salaam to a group of people but a person for whom it was not intended gives a reply, it will still be obligatory upon the group to reply.

Rule no.1142. If a person says Salaam to a group among whom one was in prayer and that person doubts whether Salaam was intended for him or not, he should not give a reply. And if the person offering prayer is sure that he was also intended by the one who greeted but someone else has made a response, he does not have to reply. But if he is sure that he was among the group for whom Salaam was intended and no one has replied, then he should reply.

Rule no.1143. It is recommended to greet with Salaam, and it has been emphatically enjoined that a person who is riding should greet one who is walking, and a person who is standing should greet one who is sitting, and a younger person should greet an elder.

Rule no.1144. If two persons simultaneously say Salaam to each other, each one of them should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, reply to the Salaam of the other.

Rule no.1145. When a person is not in prayer, it is recommended that his response to the Salaam should be more expansive. For example, when one says “Salamun alaykum”, the other should say “Salamun alaykum wa rahmatullah” in reply.

Seventh Invalidator: The seventh thing which makes prayer void is an intentional loud laugh. But if one laughs loudly unintentionally or if he purposely laughs without emitting any voice, there is no problem.

Rule no.1146. If in order to control his laughter the condition of the person in prayer changes, like if the colour of his face turns red, it is better that after completing prayer he should pray again.

Eighth Invalidator: The eighth thing that invalidates the prayer is intentional loud weeping over some worldly matter. As an obligatory precaution, one should not weep silently over some worldly matters. But if one weeps silently or loudly due to fear of Allah, or for the Hereafter, or in the memory of Imam Husain (A.S.), there is no harm in it. In fact, it is among the best acts.

Ninth Invalidator: Any act which changes the form of prayer invalidates the prayer, like clapping or jumping, regardless of whether that act is done intentionally or forgetfully. However, there is no harm in actions which do not change the form of prayer, like making a brief sign with one's hand.

Rule no.1147. If a person remains silent during his prayer for so long that it may not be said that he is offering prayer, his prayer is invalidated.

Rule no.1148. If a person performs an extraneous act during prayer, or maintains a prolonged silence, and then doubts whether his prayer has been thereby invalidated, he can abandon it to repeat the prayer, but the better course of action is to first complete the prayer and then repeat it.

Tenth Invalidator: Eating or drinking. If a person offering prayers eats or drinks in such a manner that people would not say that he was in prayer, his prayer would be void, regardless of whether he does it intentionally or forgetfully. However, if a person who wants to keep a fast is offering a recommended prayer before the Adhan of dawn, and being thirsty, fears that by the time he completes the prayer it will be dawn, he can drink water during that recommended prayer, provided water is not more than two to three steps away from him, and he should be careful not to commit acts which invalidate prayer, like turning his face away from Qibla.

Rule no.1149. If succession (Muwalat) is not maintained by intentional eating and drinking and it cannot be said that he is offering prayer with succession, as an obligatory precaution he should pray again and also first complete the first prayer.

Rule no.1150. If a person in prayer swallows the food which has remained around his teeth, his prayer is not invalidated. Similarly, if things like sugar cubes or grains of sugar remain in the mouth and they melt slowly and go down the throat, there is no harm in it.

Eleventh Invalidator: Any doubt concerning the number of units in those prayers which consist of two or three units, or those prayers having four units if one doubts about the number of the first two units, his prayer will be void if he continues to be in doubt.

Twelfth Invalidator: If a person omits or adds the elemental parts of the prayer, either intentionally or forgetfully, his prayer is void. Similarly, if he does an extra element forgetfully, like adding a bowing or two prostrations in one unit, his prayer will be void. And if one omits purposely acts which are not elemental, or makes such an addition, his prayer will be void. But if one forgetfully adds one more Takbeeratul-Ihram, his prayer will not be void, but as a precaution the prayer should be repeated.

Rule no.1151. If a person doubts after the prayer whether or not he performed any such act which invalidated the prayer, his prayer will be in order.

Things which are hateful in prayer

Rule no.1152. It hateful that a person in prayer slightly turns his face towards the right or left, an angle which would not be construed as deviation from Qibla (in which case the prayer will be void, as explained earlier, i.e. if the angle is construed to be a deviation from Qibla). It is also hateful during prayer to shut the eyes or turn towards the right or left, and to play with one's beard and hands, and to cross the fingers of one hand into those of another, and to spit. It is also hateful to look at the writing of the holy Qur'an, or some other books or a ring. It is also hateful to become silent while reciting chapter al-Hamd, or any other chapter or dhikr, so as to listen to some conversation. And in fact, every such act which disturbs attention and humility is hateful.

Rule no.1153. It is hateful for a person to offer prayer when he is feeling drowsy or when he restrains his urge for urinating or defecation. Similarly, it is hateful to offer prayer with tight socks which press the feet. There are other things also which are hateful in prayer which are mentioned in detailed books on the subject.

Occasions when obligatory prayers can be broken

Rule no.1154. It is prohibited to break obligatory prayers purposely. But if one has to break his prayer in order to protect property, or to escape from financial or physical harm, there is no objection.

Rule no.1155. If it is not possible for a person to protect his own life, or the life of a person whose protection is obligatory upon him, or to protect a property the protection of which is obligatory on him without breaking the prayer, he should break the prayer.

Rule no.1156. If a creditor demands payment from a person who is praying and if there is ample time for prayer, he should pay him while praying, if that is possible. But if it is not possible to pay him without breaking the prayer, then he should break the prayer, pay the creditor and then pray again.

Rule no.1157. If a person learns during his prayers that the mosque is impure and if time is short, he should complete the prayer. And if there is sufficient time and making the mosque pure does not change the form of prayer, he should make it pure while praying and then continue with the remaining part of the prayer. And if making the mosque pure in that state changes the form of the prayer, breaking the prayer is permissible if making it pure is possible after prayer; but if it is not possible, it is necessary that he should break the prayer, make the mosque pure, and then offer prayer.

Rule no.1158. In a situation where one must break prayer, if he goes on and completes it, his prayer is in order, though he will have committed a sin. However, the recommended precaution is that he should offer the prayer again.

Rule no.1159. If a person offering prayer remembers before bending to the extent of bowing that he has forgotten to recite the Adhan and Iqamah and if he has sufficient time at his disposal, it is recommended that he should break the prayer and recite the Adhan and Iqamah. The same rule applies if he remembers before the recitation (Qira`ah) that he has forgotten the Adhan and Iqamah .

Doubts in the prayer

There are 23 kinds of doubts which one can have while praying. Out of these, 8 doubts are those which invalidate the prayer, and 6 are those which should be ignored. And the remaining 9 doubts are valid doubts.

Doubts which make prayer void

Rule no.1160. The following doubts make prayers void:

(1) Doubt about the number of units occurring in obligatory prayers which consist of 2 units, like dawn prayer, or the shortened prayer offered by a traveller. However, doubts about the number of units in recommended prayers or precautionary prayers does not make the prayer void.

(2) Doubt occurring in a prayer of 3 units, as to whether one has performed one unit or more.

(3) Doubt occurring in a prayer of 4 units, as to whether one has performed one unit or more.

(4) Doubt occurring in a prayer of 4 units before completing the dhikr of the second prostration, as to whether he has performed 2 units or more.

(5) Doubts between 2 and 5 units, or between 2 and more than 5 units

(6) Doubts between 3 and 6 units, or between 3 and more than 6 units

(7) Doubt about the numbers of units in the prayer (i.e. one does not know how many units he has prayed).

(8) Doubt between 4 and 6 units, or between 4 and more than 6 units, with the details which will come later.

Rule no.1161. If a person has one of those doubts which makes prayer void, as a precaution, he should not break the prayer; in fact he should prolong thinking about it so that the form of prayer does not remain intact, or until he loses all hope to ascertaining or forming a particular opinion about the situation.

Doubts which may be ignored

Rule no.1162. The following doubts should be ignored:

(1) Doubt about an act whose time of performance has already passed. For example, during bowing a person doubts as to whether he did or did not recite chapter al-Hamd.

(2) Doubt occurring after the salutations (Salam) of prayer.

(3) Doubt after the time of prayer has already passed.

(4) Doubt of a person who doubts too much.

(5) Doubt by the imam (one who leads the congregation prayer) about the number of units when the ma'moom (follower) is aware of the number, and similarly, the doubt of the ma'moom when the imam knows the number of units.

(6) Doubt which occurs in recommended prayers and precautionary prayers.

(1) Doubt about an act whose time of performance has passed

Rule no.1163. If a person doubts while offering prayer as to whether or not he has performed a particular obligatory act, like if he doubts whether or not he has recited chapter al-Hamd, and if he has not engaged himself in the next act, he should perform the act about which he doubts. And if he has engaged himself in the next act, like reading the next chapter, he should ignore the doubt.

Rule no.1164. If a person doubts while reciting a verse whether or not he has recited the preceding verse, or doubts while reciting the end part of a verse whether or not he has recited its beginning, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1165. If a person doubts after bowing or prostration whether or not he has performed its obligatory parts, like dhikr and steadiness of the body, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1166. If while going into prostration, a person doubts whether or not he has performed bowing, it is obligatory for him to return back and perform bowing, and if he doubts whether he stood up after bowing or not, he should ignore the doubt.

Rule no.1167. If a person doubts while rising to stand whether or not he has performed the prostration or doctrinal testimony, he should return and perform the act.

Rule no.1168. If a person, who is offering prayers sitting or lying, doubts at the time of reciting chapter al-Hamd or the Tasbeehat, whether or not he has performed prostration or the doctrinal testimony, he should ignore his doubt. And if the doubt occurs before reciting chapter al-Hamd or Tasbeehat, he should perform them.

Rule no.1169. If a person doubts whether or not he has performed one of the elemental parts of prayer and if he has not yet engaged himself in the next act, he should perform it. For example, if he doubts before reciting the doctrinal testimony whether or not he has performed the two prostrations, he should perform them. And if he remembers later that he had already performed that elemental part, his prayers will become void because of the additional elemental part.

Rule no.1170. If a person doubts whether or not he has performed an act which is not an elemental part of prayer and if he has not engaged himself in the following act, he should perform it. For example, if he doubts before reciting the other chapter, whether or not he has recited chapter al-Hamd, he should recite al-Hamd. And if he remembers after reciting al-Hamd that he had already recited it, his prayers will be in order because an elemental part has not been added.

Rule no.1171. If a person doubts whether or not he has performed an elemental part of prayer, for example, while in tashahhud (doctrinal testimony) he doubts whether or not he has performed the two prostrations, and ignores his doubt, but remembers later that he had actually not performed that elemental part, he should perform it if he has not entered into the next elemental part. However, if he has engaged himself in the next elemental part, his prayer is void. For example, if he remembers before bowing of the next unit that he had not performed the two prostrations, he should perform them, and if he remembers this during the bowing or thereafter, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1172. If a person doubts whether or not he has performed an act which is not an elemental part of prayer and if he is engaged in the next act, he should ignore his doubt. For example, if he doubts while reciting the other chapter whether or not he has recited chapter al-Hamd, he should ignore his doubt. And if he remembers later that he had actually not performed that act, he should perform it if he has not entered into the next elemental act, and if he has entered the next elemental act, his prayer is in order. Based on this, if he remembers in Qunoot that he has not recited chapter al-Hamd, he should recite it, and if he remembers it in bowing, his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1173. If a person doubts whether or not he has recited the salutations (Salam) of prayer when he is engaged in another prayer, or when the form of prayer has already changed, he should ignore his doubt. And if he doubts before these acts, he should recite the salutations, even if he is engaged in post-prayer supplications. And if he doubts at any stage whether he recited the salutations correctly or not, he should ignore that doubt.

(2) Doubt after the salutations

Rule no.1174. If a person becomes doubtful after the salutations (Salam) of prayer as to whether or not he has offered the prayer correctly, for example, if he doubts whether or not he has performed the bowing, or doubts in a 4-unit prayer as to whether he has performed 4 or 5 units, he should ignore his doubt. But if both sides of the doubt lead to the invalidity of the prayer, like if he doubts in 4-unit prayers whether he has performed 3 or 5 units, his prayer would be void.

(3) Doubt after the time of prayer has passed

Rule no.1175. If a person doubts after the time for prayer has already passed as to whether he has offered the prayers or not, or if he suspects that he may not have offered it, it is not necessary for him to offer that prayer. However, if he doubts before the expiry of the time for that prayer as to whether or not he has offered it, he should offer it even if he has a feeling that he might have done so.

Rule no.1176. If a person doubts after the time for prayer has passed whether or not he has offered the prayer correctly, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1177. If after the time for midday and afternoon prayer has passed, a person knows that he has offered 4 units but does not know whether it was with the intention of midday prayer or afternoon prayer, as a precaution he should offer 4 units of Qadha prayer with the intention that he is praying that which is obligatory upon him.

Rule no.1178. If after the time for sunset and evening prayer has elapsed a person knows that he has offered one prayer but does not know whether it was of 3 or 4 units, he should offer the Qadha of both sunset and evening prayers.

(4) One who doubts too much

Rule no.1179. One who doubts too much (“Katheer-ush-Shak”) is a person who doubts quite often, meaning that he doubts more than a normal person does due to an unsettled mind or whims. A person who doubts at least once in every three prayers should ignore his doubts.

Rule no.1180. If a person with such an obsession doubts about having performed any part of prayer, he should decide that he has performed it. For example, if he doubts whether he has performed bowing, he should say that he has performed it. And if he doubts about having performed an act which invalidate prayer, like if he doubts whether in the dawn prayer he has offered 2 or 3 units, he should consider that he has offered the prayer properly.

Rule no.1181. If a person frequently doubts about a particular act of prayer, then doubts occurring about other acts of prayer should be dealt with according to their prescribed rules. For example, if a person who frequently doubts about having performed prostration, doubts about having performed the bowing, he should act according to the rules relating to it, that is, if he has not performed prostration, he should perform bowing, and if he has already performed prostration, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1182. If a person frequently doubts in a particular prayer like the prayer of midday and if he has a doubt in the prayer of afternoon, he should act according to the rules of doubts.

Rule no.1183. If a person who doubts more only when he offers prayer at a particular place becomes subjected to doubts at another place of prayer, he should act according to the rules of doubts.

Rule no.1184. A person who doubts whether he has become one of those who doubt too much (Katheer-ush-Shak) should act according to the normal rules relating to doubts. And as long as a Katheer-ush-Shak person is not sure that he has returned to the normal condition, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1185. If one who doubts too much doubts whether he has performed an elemental part of prayer or not and ignores his doubts but remembers later that he had actually not performed it, he should perform it if he has not gone into next elemental part. And if he has commenced the next elemental act, his prayer is void. For example, if he doubts whether he has performed the bowing or not and ignores his doubt but remembers before the second prostration that he has not performed the bowing, he should return and perform the bowing, but if he remembers it in the second prostration, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1186. If one who doubts too much doubts whether he has performed an act which is not elemental and ignores his doubt and remembers later that he has not performed it and if the stage of its performance has not passed, he should perform it, and if he has passed its stage his prayer is in order. For example, if he doubts whether he has recited al-Hamd and remembers while offering the Qunoot, he should recite it. But if he remembers after having gone to bowing, his prayer will be in order.

(5) Doubt of the imam and the follower

Rule no.1187. If an imam who is leading a congregational prayer doubts about the number of units, for example, if he doubts whether he has performed three or four units, he will follow the indication given by the follower who is certain or has an inclination about the number of units prayed. If he indicates that it is the fourth unit, the imam will accept it and complete the prayer. Similarly, if the follower has a doubt about the number of units, he should ignore his doubt.

(6) Doubt in recommended prayers

Rule no.1188. If a person doubts about the number of units in a recommended prayer and if the higher likelihood makes the prayer void, he should decide on the lesser likelihood of the doubt. For example, if he doubts whether he has performed 2 units or 3 in the Nafilah of dawn prayer, he should decide that he has performed 2 units. But if the higher likelihood does not invalidate the prayer, like if he doubts whether he has performed 2 units or 1, he is free to decide either way and his prayer will be valid.

Rule no.1189. Omission of an elemental act invalidates one’s recommended prayer but addition of an elemental act does not invalidate it. Hence, if the person offering recommended prayers forgets to perform any part and remembers when he has entered into another elemental part, he should return to perform the forgotten part and then re-enter the elemental part. For example, if he remembers during the bowing that he has not recited chapter al-Hamd, he should return to recite chapter al-Hamd and then go into bowing again.

Rule no.1190. If a person doubts whether he has performed an elemental or non-elemental part of recommended prayer, he should perform it if its stage has not passed and if it has, then he should ignore the doubt.

Rule no.1191. If in a recommended prayer of two units, a person suspects that he has offered 3 units or more, he should ignore his doubt and his prayer is in order. If he suspects that he has offered 2 units or less, then he should pay heed to that suspicion. For example, if he suspects that he has performed one unit only, he should perform another unit.

Rule no.1192. If a person in his recommended prayer performs an act which, if he had performed in an obligatory prayers it would have been necessary for him to offer the prostration of forgetfulness, or if he forgets one prostration or doctrinal testimony, it will not be necessary to perform the prostration of forgetfulness, or offer the Qadha for the prostration or doctrinal testimony, after the prayer is over.

Rule no.1193. If a person doubts whether he has offered a particular recommended prayer or not, and if that prayer does not have a fixed time, like the prayers of Ja'far at-Tayyar, he should decide that he has not offered it. The position is the same if that prayer has a fixed time, like the daily recommended prayers, and a person doubts before its time lapses whether he has offered it or not. However, if he doubts after its time has lapsed, he should ignore his doubt.

Doubts which are valid

Rule no.1194. There are nine situations in which a person can have doubts about the number of units in the prayer consisting of four units. In these situations, as an obligatory precaution, one should pause to think and if he arrives at any decision or probability, he should act accordingly. If doubt persists, he should follow these rules:

(1) After completing the dhikr of second prostration, if a person doubts whether he has performed 2 units or 3, he should assume that he has performed 3 units and finish the prayer after performing one more unit. And after finishing the prayers he should stand and offer 1 unit of Precautionary Prayer.

(2) If after completing the dhikr of the second prostration, a person doubts whether he has performed 2 or 4 units, he should decide that he has performed 4 units and finish his prayer. He should then stand up to offer 2 units of Precautionary Prayer.

(3) If a person doubts after completing the dhikr of the second prostration whether he has performed 2, 3 or 4 units, he should decide that he has performed 4 units. After completing the prayer, he should stand up to perform 2 units of Precautionary Prayer and then offer 2 units of Precautionary Prayer in the sitting position.

(4) If a person doubts after completing the dhikr of the second prostration as to whether he has performed 4 or 5 units, he should decide that he has performed 4 units and finish his prayer. After that he should perform two prostration of forgetfulness. In any of the aforementioned four situations, if the doubt occurs after the first prostration and before completing the dhikr of the second prostration, the prayer will be void.

(5) If a person doubts at any stage during his prayer whether he has performed 3 or 4 units, he should decide that he has performed 4 units and finish his prayer. Thereafter he should offer Precautionary Prayer of 1 unit standing, or of 2 units in the sitting position.

(6) If a person doubts during the Qiyam (i.e. while standing in prayer) as to whether he has performed 4 units or 5, he should sit down and recite the doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) and the salutations (salam) of prayers. Then he should stand up to offer Precautionary Prayer of 1 unit, or offer 2 units while sitting.

(7) If one doubts while in Qiyam whether he has performed 3 or 5 units, he should sit down and recite the doctrinal testimony and salutations to finish the prayer. After that, he should stand up to offer 2 units of Precautionary Prayer.

(8) If a person doubts while in Qiyam as to whether he has offered 3, 4 or 5 units, he should sit down and recite doctrinal testimony and the salutations of prayer. Thereafter, he should stand to offer Precautionary Prayer of 2 units and another 2 units in the sitting position.

(9) If a person doubts while in Qiyam whether he has performed 5 or 6 units, he should sit down and recite the doctrinal testimony and salutations of the prayer. Thereafter, he should perform two prostration of forgetfulness. In all the foregoing four situations (numbered 5 to 8) one should, as an obligatory precaution, also offer two prostrations of forgetfulness for an extra standing (Qiyam).

Rule no.1195. When a person has any of the above valid doubts, as an obligatory precaution he should not break the prayer and he should act according to the rules given above.

Rule no.1196. If a person has one of those doubts for which offering of Precautionary Prayer is obligatory, when he completes the prayer, as an obligatory precaution he should offer the Precautionary Prayer and without doing so he should not start praying again. And before any such act occurs which invalidates prayer if he starts to pray again without having performed the Precautionary Prayer, the second prayer will be void also. And if he engaged in prayer after an act which makes the prayer void without having offered Precautionary Prayer, then his second prayer will be in order.

Rule no.1197. When a person has any of those doubts which invalidate the prayer and if he knows that by continuing to the next act he may acquire certainty, or form a strong idea about the actual situation, he is not allowed to continue with that prayer. For example, if he doubts while standing whether he has offered one unit or more and knows that if he goes into the bowing the doubt may be dispelled, it is not permissible to go to bowing.

Rule no.1198. If initially the feeling of a person is inclined on one side and later both the sides become equally strong, he should act according to the rules of doubt. And if initially both sides are equally strong and he decides to act according to his obligation but later his feeling inclines to the other side, he should adopt it and complete the prayer.

Rule no.1199. If a person does not know whether his feeling is inclined on one side or is equal on both sides, he should act according to the rules of doubt.

Rule no.1200. If a person learns after prayer that while in prayer he was in a state of doubt as to whether he offered 2 units or 3 and that he decided in favour of 3 units but does not know whether his strong feeling favoured offering three units or whether it favoured both sides equally, he should have to offer Precautionary Prayer.

Rule no.1201. If a person doubts while offering the doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) or after standing up whether or not he has performed the two prostrations and simultaneously has a type of doubt which would only be valid if it occurred after two prostration, like if he doubts whether he has performed two or three units, his prayer will be valid if he acts according to the rule prescribed for that doubt.

Rule no.1202. If a person doubts before he begins the doctrinal testimony or before standing (Qiyam) whether he has performed one or both the prostrations and right at that moment, a doubt occurs which would only be valid if it occurred after two prostrations, the prayer will be void.

Rule no.1203. If a person doubts while standing in Qiyam whether he is in the third or fourth unit, or whether it is the third, fourth or fifth unit, and at that time he remembers to have omitted one or both prostrations of the preceding unit, his prayer will be void.

Rule no.1204. If one doubt of a person is dispelled and another doubt takes its place, like if he doubted first whether he had offered 2 or 3 units and later he doubts whether he has offered 3 or 4 units, he should act according to the rules of the second doubt.

Rule no.1205. If a person doubts after prayer whether while in prayer his doubt was about 2 and 4 units or about 3 and 4 units, it is permissible for him to treat the prayer as void and offer it again.

Rule no.1206. If a person realises after prayer that while he was in prayer he had a doubt but does not know whether it was a valid doubt or a doubt which invalidates the prayer, and if it was one of the valid doubts he does not know which type of valid doubt it was, in such a case it is obligatory for him to treat the prayer as void and offer it again.

Rule no.1207. If a person who prays in the sitting position has a doubt which would oblige him to perform either 1 unit Precautionary Prayer standing or 2 units in the sitting position, he should offer 1 unit sitting. And if he has a doubt for which his obligation is to offer two units of Precautionary Prayer standing, he should offer 2 units sitting.

Rule no.1208. If a person who normally offers prayer in the standing position becomes unable to stand while offering Precautionary Prayer, he should offer it as one who offers prayers in the sitting position. Rules of these have been detailed above.

Rule no.1209. If a person who normally sits when offering prayers becomes capable of standing for offering Precautionary Prayers, he should act according to the obligation of one who offers prayer standing.

Method of offering the Precautionary Prayer

Rule no.1210. A person for whom it is obligatory to offer Precautionary Prayer should make its intention immediately after the salutations of prayer and pronounce Takbeer and recite chapter al-Hamd and then perform the bowing and two prostrations. If he has to perform only one unit of Precautionary Prayer, he should recite the doctrinal testimony and salutations of the prayer after two prostrations. If it is obligatory for him to perform 2 units of Precautionary Prayer, he should perform another unit like the first one after the two prostrations and then complete with the doctrinal testimony and salutations.

Rule no.1211. Precautionary prayer does not have another chapter of the holy Quran to be recited (after al-Hamd) nor the Qunoot (personal supplication) and this prayer should be offered silently; its intention should not be uttered, and the recommended precaution is that its “Bismillah” should also be pronounced silently.

Rule no.1212. If a person realises before starting Precautionary Prayer that the prayer which he had offered was correct, he does not need to offer it, and if he realises this during Precautionary Prayer, he does not need to complete it.

Rule no.1213. If a person becomes certain before starting Precautionary Prayer that the prayer which he had offered had lesser units and if he has still not performed an act which would invalidate prayer, he should complete those parts of the prayer which he had not performed and also perform two prostrations of forgetfulness for the extra salutation. And if he has performed an act which invalidates prayer, for example if he has turned his back towards Qibla, he should repeat the prayer.

Rule no.1214. If a person realises after Precautionary Prayer that the deficiency in his original prayer was equal to the Precautionary Prayer, for example if he offers 1 unit of Precautionary Prayer in the case of a doubt about 3 and 4 units and it transpires later that he had actually offered 3 units in the original prayer, his prayer will be in order.

Rule no.1215. If a person learns after Precautionary Prayer that the deficiency in his original prayer was lesser than the Precautionary Prayer, like if he offers 2 units of Precautionary Prayer for the doubt about 2 and 4 units and learns later that he had actually offered 3 units, he should repeat his original prayer.

Rule no.1216. If a person learns after Precautionary Prayer that the deficiency in his original prayer was more than Precautionary Prayer, like if he offers 1 unit of precautionary prayer for the doubt between 3 and 4 units and learns later that he actually offered 2 units only, if he has performed any act which invalidates the prayer, like if he has turned his back towards Qibla, he should offer the prayer again. And if he has not performed an act which invalidates prayer, then his Precautionary Prayer will also be included in the prayer and he has to simply offer 1 missing unit and his prayer will be in order. But he has to perform two prostrations of forgetfulness for the two extra salutations in his original prayer and the Precautionary Prayer.

Rule no.1217. If a person had a doubt as to whether it was his second, third or fourth unit and remembers after offering 2 units of Precautionary Prayer in standing position that he had actually offered 2 units of his original prayer, it will not be necessary for him to offer 2 units of Precautionary Prayer in the sitting position.

Rule no.1218. If a person had a doubt whether it was his third or fourth unit and remembers while offering 1 unit of Precautionary Prayer in the standing position that he had actually offered 3 units in the original prayer, he should complete Precautionary Prayer and his prayers will be valid. But for one additional act of salutations (Salam), he will perform a prostration of forgetfulness. And if he is offering two units of Precautionary Prayer in sitting position and remembers this before the bowing, he should stand up and complete the prayer according to the deficiency. And if remembers it after the bowing his prayer is void.

Rule no.1219. If a person had a doubt about the second, third and fourth units and while he was offering 2 units of Precautionary Prayer in the standing position he remembered that he had actually offered 3 units before the second bowing he should sit down and complete one unit Precautionary Prayer and perform a prostration of forgetfulness for the extra salutation.

Rule no.1220. If a person realises during Precautionary Prayer that the deficiency in his prayer was more or less than his Precautionary Prayer and he cannot complete the Precautionary Prayer according to the difference in his original prayer, he should abandon the Precautionary Prayer and in this situation if possible he should offer the prayer according to the deficiency, and if it is not possible he should pray again. For example, if he had a doubt between the third and fourth unit and while offering two units of Precautionary Prayer in the sitting position he remembers that he had offered two units in his original prayer, as he cannot count two units in sitting position equal to two units while standing, he should abandon that prayer. And if he remembers this before the bowing of the first unit of Precautionary Prayer, he should offer the prayer according to the deficiency of the original prayer, and if he remembers after this he should offer the prayer once again.

Rule no.1221. If a person doubts whether he offered Precautionary Prayer which was obligatory on him, and if the time of prayers has lapsed, he should ignore the doubt. And if he has time at his disposal and if much time has not elapsed between the doubt and the prayer, and he has also not performed an act invalidating the prayer, like turning away from Qibla, he should offer Precautionary Prayer. But if he has performed an act which invalidates the prayer, or if a good deal of time has elapsed between the prayer and the doubt, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1222. If a person increases an elemental act in Precautionary Prayer, or if he prays 2 units instead of 1, his Precautionary Prayer will be void and he will have to offer the original prayer again.

Rule no.1223. If during Precautionary Prayer, a person doubts about any one of its acts and if its stage has not passed, he should perform it. And if its stage has passed, he should ignore the doubt. For example, if he doubts whether or not he has recited chapter al-Hamd and if he has not yet gone into bowing, he should recite chapter al-Hamd, and if he has gone into bowing, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1224. When a person doubts about the number of units in Precautionary Prayer, if he finds that by deciding on the higher likelihood the Precautionary Prayer will be void, he should decide on the lesser. But if he finds that deciding on the higher side would not invalidate the Precautionary Prayer, then he should decide on the higher side. For example, if a person, who is offering 2 units of Precautionary Prayer, doubts whether he has offered 2 or 3 units, since taking the higher likelihood (i.e. 3 units) will invalidate the prayer, he should decide that it is second unit. And if he doubts whether he has offered 1 or 2 units, then since taking it on the higher likelihood will not invalidate the prayer, he should consider that he has offered 2 units.

Rule no.1225. If an act which is not elemental is omitted or added forgetfully in Precautionary Prayer, it will not be necessary to perform the prostration of forgetfulness for it.

Rule no.1226. If the person offering Precautionary Prayer doubts after salutations whether or not he has performed one of the parts or conditions of the prayer, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1227. If a person forgets the doctrinal testimony or one prostration in Precautionary Prayer, and if he is not able to perform it at once, the obligatory precaution is that he should perform the Qadha for the doctrinal testimony or prostration after the salutations of the prayer.

Rule no.1228. If a man has an obligation to perform Precautionary Prayer, the Qadha of a prostration or Qadha of doctrinal testimony, or two prostrations of forgetfulness, he should first offer the Precautionary Prayer.

Rule no.1229. As far as the units of prayer are concerned, probability or strong feeling about it will be treated at the same level as certainty. For example, if a person does not know for certain whether he has offered 1 unit or 2, and has a strong feeling that he has offered 2 units, he should decide in its favour. And if in a prayer of 4 units, he strongly feels that he has offered 4 units, he should not offer Precautionary Prayer. But in the matter of acts of prayer, probability has the position of doubt. Hence, if he feels that probably he has performed bowing and if he has not yet entered prostration, he should perform the bowing. And if he thinks that he has not recited chapter al-Hamd and has already started the other chapter, he should ignore his doubt and his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1230. There is no difference between the rules of doubts, forgetting, and probability or strong feeling, whether they occur in the daily obligatory prayers or other obligatory prayers. For example, if one doubts in the Prayer of Phenomena whether he has performed 1 unit or 2, his prayer will be void, because it is a doubt which has occurred in a prayer consisting of 2 units. Similarly, if he has a strong feeling that it is his first or his second unit, he will complete the prayer based on that feeling.

Prostration of forgetfulness (Sahw)

Rule no.1231. Two prostrations of forgetfulness become necessary for five things, and they are performed after the salutations. Their method will be explained later:

(1) For talking forgetfully during prayer.

(2) Reciting salutations at the wrong place, like forgetfully reciting them in the first unit.

(3) Forgetting the doctrinal testimony.

(4) When there is a doubt in a 4-unit prayer, after completing the obligatory dhikr of the second prostration, as to whether the number of units performed is 4 or 5.

(5) As per obligatory precaution, if a person performs only one prostration forgetting the other, or if he erroneously sits down where he should stand or vice versa, he should perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness.

In fact, as a recommended precaution, for every omission and addition made by mistake, in prayer, the two prostrations of forgetfulness should be performed. The rules related to the above situations will be discussed in the next articles.

Rule no.1232. If a person talks, by mistake or under the impression that his prayer has ended, he should perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1233. The prostrations of forgetfulness are not obligatory for the sound emitted by sighing or coughing, but if one inadvertently sighs or moans, like 'Ah' or 'Akh', he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1234. If a person makes an error in some recitation and then repeats to correct it, prostration of forgetfulness will not be obligatory upon him.

Rule no.1235. If a person talks for some time in prayer by mistake and if the process is construed as having talked just once, he will perform two prostrations of forgetfulness after salutations.

Rule no.1236. If a person forgets the Tasbeehat, the recommended precaution is that he should perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness after his prayer.

Rule no.1237. If at a place where the salutations of prayers is not to be said, a person forgetfully says "Assalamu 'alayna wa'ala 'ibadillahis saliheen", or says: "Assalamu 'alaykum", he should perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness, even if he did not add "Wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh". But if he says: "Assalamu `alayka Ayyuhan Nabiyyu Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh" then two prostrations of forgetfulness will be a recommended precaution.

Rule no.1238. If a person says by mistake all the three salutations at a time when salutations should not be recited, it is sufficient to perform two prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1239. If a person forgets one prostration or doctrinal testimony and remembers it before the bowing of the next unit, he should return and perform it. And after the prayer, he should, as an obligatory precaution, offer two prostrations of forgetfulness for the additional standing (Qiyam).

Rule no.1240. If a person remembers during the bowing or thereafter that he has forgotten one prostration or doctrinal testimony of the preceding unit, as a precaution, he should perform the Qadha of the doctrinal testimony or prostration after the salutations of prayer and he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1241. If a person does not perform prostration of forgetfulness after the salutations of prayer intentionally, he commits a sin and it is obligatory upon him to perform it as early as possible. And if he forgets to perform it, as a precaution, he should perform it immediately when he remembers. It is, however, not necessary for him to repeat the prayer.

Rule no.1242. If a person doubts whether or not two prostrations of forgetfulness have become obligatory upon him, it is not necessary for him to perform them.

Rule no.1243. If a person doubts whether two or four prostrations of forgetfulness have become obligatory upon him, it will be sufficient if he performs two prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1244. If a person knows that he has not performed one of the two prostrations of forgetfulness and if it is not possible to do it then, he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness again. And if he knows that he has offered three prostrations forgetfully, the obligatory precaution is that he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness again.

The method of offering the prostrations of forgetfulness

Rule no.1245. Its method is as follows:

Immediately after the salutations of prayer, one should make the intention of performing the prostrations of forgetfulness, placing one's forehead on a permissible object. And it is better to recite: “Bismillahi wa billah, Assalamu 'alayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh”. Then one should sit up and perform another prostration reciting the above mentioned dhikr. After performing the second prostration one should sit up again and recite the doctrinal testimony and then say: “Assalamu `alayna wa `ala `Ibadillahis Saliheen”; it is better to recite the three salutations.

Qadha of the forgotten prostration and tashahhud

Rule no.1246. If a person forgets a prostration and tasahhud (doctrinal testimony) and offers its Qadha after prayer, he should fulfil all the conditions of prayer, like his body and dress being pure, and facing the Qibla, and all other various conditions.

Rule no.1247. If a person forgets prostration a few times, like if he forgets one prostration in the first unit and another in the second unit, after the prayer he should perform the Qadha of each one of them. As an obligatory precaution he should also perform the prostrations of forgetfulness for each of them.

Rule no.1248. If a person forgets one prostration and doctrinal testimony, he should offer both of them with correct sequence.

Rule no.1249. If a person forgets two prostrations from two units, it is not necessary to observe the order while offering their Qadha.

Rule no.1250. If between the salutations of prayer and the Qadha of prostration or doctrinal testimony, a person performs an act which would invalidate the prayer whether he does so purposely or forgetfully, like turning away from Qibla, the obligatory precaution is that, after performing the Qadha of the prostration or doctrinal testimony, he should repeat his prayer.

Rule no.1251. If a person remembers just after the salutation of prayer that he has forgotten a prostration or doctrinal testimony of the last unit, he should return to complete the prayer and should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness for an additional salutation.

Rule no.1252. If between the salutations of prayer and the Qadha of prostration or doctrinal testimony, a person performs an act which makes prostration of forgetfulness obligatory (like, if he talks forgetfully), he should, as an obligatory precaution, first perform the Qadha of the prostration or doctrinal testimony and then do the prostrations of forgetfulness for the Qadha of prostration and doctrinal testimony, and perform two more prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1253. If a person does not know whether he has forgotten a prostration or doctrinal testimony in his prayer, he should perform the Qadha of prostration and also perform two prostrations of forgetfulness. And as a precaution, he should perform the Qadha of the doctrinal testimony also.

Rule no.1254. If a person doubts whether or not he has forgotten to perform a prostration or doctrinal testimony, it is not obligatory for him to perform its Qadha, nor to perform the prostration of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1255. If a person knows that he has forgotten a prostration or doctrinal testimony, but doubts whether or not he has performed it before the bowing of the next unit, the obligatory precaution is that he should perform its Qadha.

Rule no.1256. If it is obligatory on a person to perform the Qadha of a prostration or doctrinal testimony and, owing to some other act, prostration of forgetfulness also becomes obligatory upon him, he should first perform the Qadha of prostration or doctrinal testimony after prayer and then perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.

Rule no.1257. If a person doubts whether or not he has offered the Qadha of the forgotten prostration or doctrinal testimony after the prayer and if the time for the prayer has not lapsed, he should offer the Qadha. And if the time of prayer has lapsed, it is recommended to offer the Qadha.

Addition and omission of the acts and conditions of prayer

Rule no.1258. Whenever a person intentionally adds something to the obligatory acts of prayer or omits something from them, even if it be only a letter, his prayer become void.

Rule no.1259. If a person adds or omits the elemental parts of prayer due to ignorance about the rule, his prayer is void. And if someone, due to his ignorance about the rule, offers dawn, sunset and evening prayers with silent recitation, or midday and afternoon with loud recitation, or offers four units where he should have prayed two because of travelling, his prayer will be in order.

Rule no.1260. If a person realises during prayer that his ablution or ritual bath had been void, or that he had begun offering prayer without ablution or ritual bath, he should abandon that prayer and repeat the same with ablution or ritual bath. And if he realises it after the prayer, he should pray again with ablution or ritual bath. And if the time for the prayer has lapsed, he should perform its Qadha.

Rule no.1261. If a person remembers after reaching bowing that he has forgotten the two prostrations of the preceding unit, his prayer is void. And if he remembers before going to bowing, he should return to perform the two prostrations. Then he should stand up to recite chapter al-Hamd and another chapter or the Tasbeehat and complete the prayer. And after the prayer, he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, perform two prostrations of forgetfulness for the additional standing (Qiyam).

Rule no.1262. If a person remembers before saying "Assalamu `alayna" that he has not performed the two prostrations of the last unit, he should perform the two prostrations and should recite the doctrinal testimony again and then recite the salutations.

Rule no.1263. If a person realises before the obligatory salutations of prayer that he has not offered one or more units of prayer, he should perform the units which had been forgotten.

Rule no.1264. If a person realises after the salutations of prayer that he has not offered one unit or more from the end part of the prayer and if he has done any such thing which would invalidate the prayer, whether he does so intentionally or forgetfully, like turning away from Qibla, his prayers will be void. But if he has not performed any such act then, he should immediately proceed to perform that part of the prayer which he forgot and should offer two prostrations of forgetfulness for the additional salutation.

Rule no.1265. If a person after the salutations of prayer does an act which would have invalidated the prayers, whether he had done so intentionally or otherwise, like turning his back towards Qibla, and then remembers that he had not performed the last two prostrations, his prayers will be void. And if he remembers it before he performs any act which would invalidate the prayer, he should perform the two forgotten prostrations and should recite the doctrinal testimony again together with salutations of the prayer. Thereafter, he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness for the extra salutation recited earlier.

Rule no.1266. If a person realises that he has offered the prayer before its time set in or offered the prayer with his back to Qibla he should offer that prayer again, and if the prescribed time for it has lapsed he should perform its Qadha. And if he prayed towards the right or the left of Qibla and realised it before the time of prayer has lapsed, he should offer it again and if he realised it after the time of prayer has lapsed it is most likely that there is no Qadha, except if he had done this due to ignorance of the rule.

Prayers of a traveller (Musafir)

A traveller should reduce the units in midday, afternoon and evening prayers, that is, he should perform two units instead of four, when the following eight conditions are met:

First condition

  • The first condition is that his journey is not less than 8 farsakhs. A farsakh according to Islamic Law is a little less than 5.5 kilometres. When converted into miles, 8 farsakhs is equal to 28 miles approximately, which is about 43 kilometres and 200 metres.

Rule no.1267. If the total of the outward journey and return journey is 8 farsakh and if the single journey either way does not equal 4 farsakhs, he should shorten his prayer. Therefore, if his outward journey is 3 farsakhs, and his return is 5 farsakhs, or vice versa, he should offer the shortened prayer, that is, of two units.

Rule no.1268. If the total of outward and return journey is just 8 farsakhs and if he returns back before ten days, the traveller should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1269. If a brief journey is less than 8 farsakhs or if a person does not know whether or not his journey is 8 farsakhs, he should not shorten his prayer. If he doubts whether or not his journey is 8 farsakhs, it is not necessary for him to investigate; he should offer complete prayer.

Rule no.1270. If a just or a reliable person tells a traveller that the distance covered in his journey equals 8 farsakhs, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1271. If a person believed that his journey equalled 8 farsakhs and he shortened his prayer, and learnt later that it was not 8 farsakhs, he should offer four units of prayer, and if the time for the prayer has lapsed he should perform its Qadha.

Rule no.1272. If a person is sure that his journey is not of 8 farsakhs, or if he doubts whether or not it is of 8 farsakhs and he realises on his way that the distance of his journey had been 8 farsakhs, he should offer shortened prayers, even if very little remains of his journey. If he has offered complete prayers, he should offer them again in the shortened form.

Rule no.1273. If a person frequents between two places which are less than 4 farsakhs apart, he should offer complete prayers, even if the total distance covered by him may add up to 8 farsakhs.

Rule no.1274. If two roads lead to a place, one of them less than 8 farsakhs away and the other 8 farsakhs or more, the traveller will offer shortened prayer if he travels by the road which is 8 farsakhs away and complete prayer if he travels by the road which is less than 8 farsakhs away.

Rule no.1275. If there is a boundary wall around a city, the beginning of 8 farsakhs should be calculated from that wall, and if there is no wall around a city then calculations should be made from the end of the locality.

Second condition

  • The second condition is that the traveller should intend at the time of the commencement of the journey to cover a distance of 8 farsakhs. If he travels up to a point which is less than 8 farsakhs away and after reaching there decides to go further, and the two distances when combined totals to 8 farsakhs, he should offer full prayer. This is so because he did not intend to travel 8 farsakhs when he commenced his journey. But if he decides to travel further 8 farsakhs from there, or to go to a distance of 4 farsakhs and then to cover another 4 farsakhs to return home, or to go to a place where he intends staying for 10 days, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1276. A person who does not know how many farsakhs his journey would be, for example if he travels in search of something not knowing how far he will have to go, he should offer full prayers. But if the return journey to his home, or up to a place where he intends staying for 10 days, is 8 farsakhs or more, he should offer shortened prayers. Moreover, if he makes an intention during the journey that he will travel 4 farsakhs and again return covering 4 farsakhs, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1277. A traveller should offer shortened prayers only when he is firmly determined to travel 8 farsakhs. Hence, if a person goes outside the city thinking that he would cover 8 farsakhs if he finds a companion, he will offer shortened prayer only if he is sure that he will find a companion. And if he is not sure to find one, he should pray full.

Rule no.1278. A person who intends to travel 8 farsakhs and covers a little distance every day, when he has reached the place where he cannot listen to the Adhan of the prayer of his city and its citizens cannot see him, or he cannot see the people of the city himself, he should shorten his prayer. However, if his journey is at such a slow pace and generally it is not said that he is a traveller, he should pray full. And the recommended precaution is that he should pray both, full and shortened prayers.

Rule no.1279. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey, like a servant travelling with his master, knows that his journey is 8 farsakhs, he should offer shortened prayers. But if he does not know, he should offer full prayers and it is not necessary for him to inquire.

Rule no.1280. If a person, who is under the control of another person while on a journey knows or thinks that he will get separated from that person before reaching 4 farsakhs, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1281. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey doubts that he would separate from that person before reaching 4 farsakhs, he should offer full prayers. But if his doubts are based on the suspicion that an impediment might occur in the journey and if its probability is not valid in the eyes of the people, he should offer shortened prayers.

Third condition

  • The third condition is that the traveller should not change his mind while on his journey. If he changes his mind or is undecided before covering 4 farsakhs, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1282. If a person abandons the journey after reaching a distance of 4 farsakhs and decides to return, he should offer shortened prayers if he wants to stay there for less than 10 days.

Rule no.1283. If a person commences his journey to go to a place which is at a distance of 8 farsakhs and after covering a part of the journey decides to go elsewhere and the distance between the place from where he started his journey and the new place is 8 farsakhs, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1284. If after covering a distance of 4 farsakhs a person becomes undecided whether he should complete his journey of 8 farsakhs or return back to his home without staying ten days at any place, when he is in a state of indecision he should offer shortened prayers even if he decides later about proceeding further or returning back.

Rule no.1285. If a person after covering 4 farsakhs becomes undecided whether he should complete his journey of 8 farsakhs or return back to his home, but if it is probable that he would stay for ten days at the place where he had became undecided or at some other place, although he may later decide to proceed further without staying ten days, in this situation he must offer full prayers, whether he proceeds further or not in the state of indecision. But if he decides to travel a further 8 farsakhs or for a distance which would add up with the return journey to make 8 farsakhs, he should pray shortened prayers from the time he departs.

Rule no.1286. If before covering a distance of 4 farsakhs a traveller becomes undecided whether he should complete the journey or not and decides later to do so, if his remaining journey is 8 farsakhs or a distance which would add up with the return journey to make 8 farsakhs, then after having made the decision as he departs he will offer shortened prayer. And in this situation it does not matter whether he is travelling in a state of indecision or not.

Fourth condition

  • The fourth condition is that the traveller does not intend to pass through his home town, or to stay at some place for 10 days or more, before he reaches a distance of 8 farsakhs. Hence, a person who intends to pass through his home town or to stay at a place for 10 days before covering a distance of 8 farsakhs, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1287. A person who does not know whether or not he will pass through his home town or a place where he intends to stay for 10 days before having covered a distance of 8 farsakhs should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1288. A person who wishes to pass through his home town before he reaches a distance of 8 farsakhs, or to stay at a place for 10 days, or if he is undecided about it, he should offer full prayers even if he later abandons the idea of passing through his home town or staying at a place for 10 days. However, if the remaining journey is of 8 farsakhs or adds up to 8 farsakhs on return, he should shorten his prayer.

Fifth condition

  • The fifth condition is that the purpose of travelling should not be prohibited. Therefore, if a person travels to do something unlawful, like to commit theft, he should offer full prayers. The same rule applies when travelling itself is prohibited, like when travelling involves a harm which is prohibited in Islamic Law, or when a wife travels without the permission of her husband (when it is said that she is disobedient to her husband), or a son travels despite his parents prohibiting him the permission of his parents (when it is said that he is disobedient), for a journey which is not obligatory. But if it is an obligatory journey, like that of obligatory Hajj, then shortened prayers should be offered.

Rule no.1289. A journey which is not obligatory and is a cause of pain for one's parents is prohibited, and while going on such a journey one should offer full prayers and he should also fast (if it is during the month of Ramadhan).

Rule no.1290. A person whose journey is not prohibited, nor is it for a purpose which is prohibited, should shorten his prayer even if he may during the journey commit some sin like indulging in backbiting or drinking alcohol.

Rule no.1291. If a person undertakes a journey to avoid some obligatory act, regardless of whether he has some other purpose attached to it, he should offer full prayer. Hence, if a person owes some money, and he undertakes a journey to avoid the demand of his creditor, he should offer full prayers. However, if his journey has a different purpose, he should shorten his prayer, even if he abandons some obligatory acts during that journey.

Rule no.1292. If journey of a person is not prohibited but he is travelling on a vehicle or on an animal which is usurped, or if he is travelling on usurped land, he should offer shortened prayer.

Rule no.1293. If a person is travelling with an oppressor willingly and by so doing is helpful to the oppressor in his inequity, he should offer full prayers. But if he is helpless, or if he is travelling with the oppressor to save the oppressed person, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1294. If a person travels for recreation and outing, his journey is not prohibited and he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1295. If a person goes out for hunting, with the object of sport and pleasure, his prayer during the outward journey will be full, and on return it will be shortened if his journey is equal to the prescribed limit. But if a person goes out for hunting to earn his livelihood, he should offer shortened prayer. The same rule applies if he goes for business and increase in his wealth.

Rule no.1296. If a person has travelled to commit a sin, he should shorten his prayer on his return if the return journey alone covers 8 farsakhs. And the recommended precaution is that if he has not repented he should offer shortened as well as full prayers.

Rule no.1297. If a person travelling with the purpose of committing a sin abandons the idea during his journey, he will pray shortened if his remaining journey is of 8 farsakhs, or the total distance of going and returning from there is 8 farsakhs.

Rule no.1298. If a person, who originally set forth on a journey with no intention of sin decides during his journey to make it a journey of sin, he should offer full prayers. However, the prayer which he might have prayed in shortened form (prior to the change of intention), if the previous part of his journey is equal to the prescribed limit, they will be in order, otherwise as an obligatory precaution he should offer them again.

Sixth condition

  • The sixth condition is that the traveller should not be a nomad, who roam about in the deserts, and temporarily stay at places where they find food for themselves and fodder and water for their animals, and again proceed to some other place after a few days' halt. During these journeys the nomads should offer full prayer.

Rule no.1299. If a nomad travels to find out residence for himself and pasture for his animals and carries his bag and baggage with him, he should offer full prayer, otherwise if his journey is 8 farsakhs he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1300. If a nomad travels for visiting the sacred places, Hajj (pilgrimage), trade or any other similar purpose, he should shorten his prayer.

Seventh condition

  • The seventh condition is that travelling should not be one’s profession, like the camel riders, herdsmen, drivers and sailors. They should offer full prayer, even if they travel for transporting their own household goods. Those who live at one place and work at another, spending ten or more days of the month in travelling between the two places, for example teachers or businessmen etc., belong to the same group.

Rule no.1301. If a person whose profession is travelling travels for another purpose, such as for Hajj, he should shorten his prayer. For example, the driver of an automobile hires out his vehicle for pilgrimage and incidentally performs pilgrimage himself as well, he should offer full prayer.

Rule no.1302. If a person whose profession is that of a dispatcher, that is a person who travels to transport the pilgrims to Makkah, is travelling, he should offer full prayers, and if his profession is not travelling and he travels only during Hajj days for the purpose of portage, the obligatory precaution is that he should offer full prayer.

Rule no.1303. If a person whose profession is that of a dispatcher who takes pilgrims to Makkah from distant places spends a considerable part of the year in travelling, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1304. A person whose profession for a part of the year is travelling, like a driver who hires out his automobile during the winter or the summer, should offer full prayers during those journeys.

Rule no.1305. If a driver or a hawker who goes around within an area of 2 or 3 farsakhs in the city happens to travel on a journey consisting of 8 farsakhs, he should shorten his prayer.

Rule no.1306. A merchant who uses horse etc. for selling his goods and his profession is travelling stays in his home town for 10 days or more, whether he intended to stay for ten days from the beginning or not, he should offer shortened prayers during the first journey that he undertakes after ten days. The same rule will apply when he travels after ten days from a place where he intended to stay for ten days which is not his home town.

Rule no.1307. If a person whose profession is travelling intends to stay at a place which is not his home town for 10 days or stays in his home town for ten days without any intention, he should offer full prayers during the first journey that he undertakes after ten days. But this rule does not apply to a merchant who uses horse etc. for selling his goods.

Rule no.1308. A merchant who uses horse etc. for selling his goods and his profession is travelling, if he doubts whether he has stayed in his home town or at some other place for ten days or not, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1309. A person who tours different cities and has not adopted a homeland for himself, should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1310. If a person whose profession is not travelling, for example he has some possessions in a city or village and now has to travel quite often to transport his property elsewhere, he should pray shortened prayer.

Rule no.1311. If a person is not a professional traveller and he has abandoned his homeland and wants to adopt another homeland, he should shorten his prayer while he is travelling.

Eighth condition

  • The eighth condition is that the traveller reaches the limit of tarakkhus (i.e. the point at which travelling begins, which has been explained earlier). But if a person is not in his hometown, the rule of tarakkhus will not apply to him – just as he travels from his place of residence, his prayer will be shortened.

Rule no.1312. If a person while travelling reaches a point where he cannot hear the Adhan of his city but can see the people of the city, or where he cannot see the people of the city but can hear the Adhan, and he wants to offer prayer there, as an obligatory precaution he should offer shortened prayers as well as full prayers.

Rule no.1313. A traveller who is returning to his hometown should offer full prayers when he sees the people of his city or hears the Adhan. But if a person who intends to stay for ten days at a place which is not his home town will offer shortened prayer until he reaches that place.

Rule no.1314. If a city is situated at such a height that the residents can be seen from a distance, or if it is so low that if a person covers a little distance he would not see them, a traveller from that city should offer shortened prayers applying that distance which would normally make him unable to see them when he is travelling on flat land. And if the elevation or depression of the path varies abnormally, the traveller should take the normal path into consideration.

Rule no.1315. If a person starts his journey from a place which is uninhabited, he should shorten his prayers when he reaches a place from which the residents, if they had been there, would not have been seen.

Rule no.1316. If a person while travelling reaches such a far-off point where he is not able to understand that the sound he is hearing is of Adhan or something else, he should offer shortened prayer. But if he knows that the sound he is hearing is Adhan but cannot understand its wording, he should offer full prayer.

Rule no.1317. If a person while travelling reaches a place where he cannot hear the Adhan pronounced from a place which is usually not very high, but can hear the calling announced from a high place in the city, he should offer shortened prayer.

Rule no.1318. If a person has unusual sharp eyesight or unusual hearing power or the sound of Adhan is unusually loud, he will pray the shortened prayer from the point from where a person with normal vision or hearing would not see the people of the city (or hear the Adhan).

Rule no.1319. If a person doubts whether or not he has reached the limit of tarakkhus, he should offer full prayers. And if the traveller who is returning from his journey doubts whether or not he has reached the limit of tarakkhus, he should offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1320. A traveller who is passing through his hometown during his journey reaches a point where he can see the people of his hometown and hear the Adhan pronounced from his hometown should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1321. When a traveller reaches his hometown during his journey and makes a stop-over there, he should offer full prayers as long as he stays there. But if he wishes to go from there to a distance of 8 farsakhs, or to go up to 4 farsakhs and then return the same distance, he should offer shortened prayers when he reaches the limit of tarakkhus.

Rule no.1322. A place which a person adopts for his residence and permanent living is his hometown, irrespective of whether he was born there, or whether it was the hometown of his parents, or whether he himself selected it as his residence.

Rule no.1323. If a person intends to stay for some time at a place which is not his original hometown and to later migrate to another place, then such a place will not be considered as his hometown.

Rule no.1324. A place that a person adopts as his residence and he lives there like a person who is living in his hometown, that place will be considered as his hometown.

Rule no.1325. If a person lives at two places – for example, he lives in one city for six months, and in another for another six months – both of them are his hometowns. And if he adopts more than two places for his living, all of them are reckoned to be his hometown.

Rule no.1326. If a person owns a house at a place and lives there continuously for six months with the intention of living there, he should, as long as that house is owned by him, offer full prayers as and when he travels to that place.

Rule no.1327. If a person reaches a place which was previously his hometown but has since abandoned it, he should not offer full prayer there, even if he may not have adopted a new hometown. But if he owns some property, house or land there, he should offer full prayers.

Rule no.1328. If a traveller intends to stay at a place continuously for ten days or knows that he will be obliged to stay at a place for ten days, he should offer full prayers at that place.

Rule no.1329. If a traveller intends to stay at a place for ten days, it is not necessary that his intention should be to stay there during the first night or the eleventh night. And as soon as he determines that he will stay there from sunrise of the first day up to sunset of the tenth day, he should offer full prayers. The same will apply if, for example, he intends to stay there from noon of the first day up to noon of the eleventh day.

Rule no.1330. A person, who intends to stay at a place for ten days should offer full prayers if he wants to stay for ten days at that place only. If he intends to spend, for example, ten days between Najaf and Kufa, or between Tehran and Shamiran, he should offer shortened prayer.

Rule no.1331. If a traveller who wants to stay at a place for ten days has determined from the beginning that during the period of ten days, he will travel to the surrounding places up to the limit of tarakkhus or more, and if the period of his going and returning is so brief (for example, it is of one or two hours) that it cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers. But if it is considered as an infringement, then as a precaution he should pray both shortened as well as full prayers. And if that period is of a day or of most part of the day then he will offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1332. A traveller who is not determined to stay at a place for ten days, for example, if his intention is to stay there for ten days only if his friends arrive, or if he finds a good house to stay in, he should offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1333. If a traveller has decided to stay at a place for ten days but at the same time considers it probable that he may have to leave earlier because of some hindrance, and if that suspicion is justifiable, he should offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1334. If a traveller knows, for example, that ten days or more remain before the month ends and decides to stay at a place until the end of the month, he should offer full prayers. But if he does not know how many days remain before the end of the month and simply decides to stay until the end of the month, and if, for example, the last day of the month is Friday but the traveller does not know whether the first day when he made his intention was Thursday (so the period of stay was nine days) or it was Wednesday (so the period of his stay was ten days), and if he later learnt that the first day when he made his intention was Wednesday, he should offer full prayers. Otherwise, he should offer shortened prayers, although the number of days from the time he made his intention until the end of the month becomes ten days or more.

Rule no.1335. If a traveller decides to stay at a place for ten days and abandons the idea before offering one prayer consisting of four units, or becomes undecided whether he stay there or go to some other place, he should offer shortened prayers. But if he abandons the idea of staying there after having offered one prayer consisting of four units, or wavers in his intention, he should offer full prayer as long as he remains at that place.

Rule no.1336. If a person who has determined to stay at a place for ten days keeps a fast and abandons the idea of staying there after midday, if he has offered one prayer consisting of four units, his fast on that day and for as long as he is there would be valid and he should offer full prayers. And if he has not offered a prayer consisting of four units, the fast kept by him on that day is in order but he should offer shortened prayers and he will not fast during the remaining days.

Rule no.1337. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days abandons the idea, but doubts before changing his intention to stay whether or not he has offered one prayer consisting of four units, he should offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1338. If a traveller starts prayer with the intention of offering shortened prayers and decides during the prayer that he would stay there for ten days or more, he should offer full prayers consisting of four units.

Rule no.1339. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days changes his mind during his first prayer consisting of four units, he should finish his prayer with two units if he has not started the third unit, and he should continue praying shortened prayers during the subsequent days (of his stay). Similarly, if he has started the third unit but has not gone into bowing, he should sit down and complete the prayer in its shortened form. But if he has gone into bowing, his prayer is void and he should pray again in its shortened form. And for as long as he is there, he should pray shortened prayers.

Rule no.1340. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days stays there for more than ten days, he should offer full prayers as long as he does not start travelling and it is not necessary that he should make a fresh intention for staying for further ten days.

Rule no.1341. A traveller who decides to stay at a place for ten days should keep the obligatory fasts; he may also keep the recommended fast and can offer recommended prayers of midday, afternoon and evening prayer also.

Rule no.1342. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, after offering a prayer of four units, or after staying for ten days without having offered one full prayer, wishes to travel less than 4 farsakhs away and to return and to stay again at his first place for ten days or less, he should offer full prayers from the time he goes until he returns and after his return. But if his return to the place of his stay is only for passing through on a journey of at least 8 farsakhs, it will be necessary for him to offer shortened prayer at the time of returning.

Rule no.1343. If a traveller who decides to stay at a place for ten days, after offering prayer of four units decides to go to another place less than 8 farsakhs away and to stay there for ten days, he should offer full prayers while going and at the place where he intends to stay. But if the place where he wants to go is 8 farsakhs away or more, he should shorten his prayers while going and if he does not want to stay there for ten days he should shorten his prayer during the period he stays there also.

Rule no.1344. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days wishes, after offering prayer of four units, to go to a place which is less than 4 farsakhs away and is undecided about returning to his first place, or is totally unmindful about it, or he wishes to return but is uncertain about staying for ten days, or is totally unmindful of staying there for ten days and travelling from there, he should from the time of his going until his return and after his return offer full prayers.

Rule no.1345. If a person decides to stay at a place for ten days under the impression that his companions wish to stay there for ten days, and after offering prayer of four units he learns that they have made no such decision, he should offer full prayers as long as he is there even if he himself gives up the idea of remaining there.

Rule no.1346. If a traveller stays at a place unexpectedly for thirty days, like if he remained undecided throughout those thirty days, whether he should stay there or not he should offer full prayers after thirty days even if it be for a short period.

Rule no.1347. If a traveller intends to stay at a place for nine days or less, and if after spending nine days or less he decides to extend his stay for a further nine days or less until it becomes thirty days, he should offer full prayer on the thirty-first day.

Rule no.1348. A traveller will have to offer full prayers after thirty days if he stays for all thirty days at one place. If he stays for a part of that period at one place and the rest at another place, he should offer shortened prayer even after thirty days.

Miscellaneous rules (regarding the traveller’s prayer)

Rule no.1349. A traveller can offer full prayers in Masjidul-Haram (in Makkah) and Masjidul-Nabi (in Madinah) and the Mosque of Kufa. He can also offer full prayers in the shrine of Imam Husain (A.S.) provided that the prayer is offered within the walls of the room of the sacred tomb.

Rule no.1350. If a person, who knows that he is a traveller and that he should offer shortened prayers intentionally offers full prayer at places other than the four mentioned above, his prayer is void. And the same rule applies if he forgets that a traveller must offer shortened prayer and offers full prayers. However, if he prays full forgetting that a traveller should offer shortened prayers and remembers after the time has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to offer the Qadha.

Rule no.1351. If a person who knows that he is a traveller and that he should offer shortened prayer offers full prayer forgetfully and realises within the time for that prayer, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1352. If a traveller does not know that he should shorten his prayer and if he offers full prayer his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1353. If a traveller knew that he should offer shortened prayer but did not know its details, like if he did not know that shortened prayers should be offered when the distance of the journey is of 8 farsakhs, and if he offers full prayers, he should repeat the prayer if he comes to know the rule within the time of prayer, and if he does not do so (within time) he will offer its Qadha. But if he learns of the rule after the time has lapsed, there is no Qadha.

Rule no.1354. If a traveller knows that he should offer shortened prayers but offers full prayers under the impression that his journey is less than 8 farsakhs, when he learns that his journey has been of 8 farsakhs he should repeat the prayer as shortened. And if he learns after the time for the prayer has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to offer Qadha.

Rule no.1355. If a person forgets that he is a traveller and offers complete prayers, if he remembers this within the time for prayer, he should offer shortened prayers. And if he realises this after the time is over, it is not obligatory for him to offer Qadha of that prayer.

Rule no.1356. If a person who should offer complete prayers offers shortened prayer, his prayer is void in all circumstances; except the traveller who stays at a place where he wants to stop for 10 days and wherein he should offer full prayers, but offers shortened prayers because of not knowing the rule.

Rule no.1357. If a person begins a prayer of four units and remembers during prayer that he is a traveller, or realises that his journey is of 8 farsakhs, if he has not gone into the bowing of the third unit he should complete prayer with two units. But if he has gone into the bowing of the third unit, his prayer is void. If he has time at his disposal, time even to offer one unit, he should offer shortened prayers.

Rule no.1358. If a traveller is not aware of some of the details regarding the prayer during travel, for example if he does not know that if he goes on an outward journey of 4 farsakhs and a return journey of 4 farsakhs, he should offer shortened prayers, and he engages in prayer with the intention of offering four units, if he comes to know the rule before bowing of the third unit, he should complete the prayer with two units. But if he learns of this rule during or after bowing, his prayer is void. And if he has time at his disposal, even to offer one unit of prayer, he should offer the shortened prayer.

Rule no.1359. If a traveller who should offer complete prayers ignorantly makes an intention for shortened prayer and learns about the rule during the prayer, he should complete the prayer with four units and the recommended precaution is that after the completion of the prayer he should offer a prayer of four units once again.

Rule no.1360. If before the time of prayer lapses a traveller who has not offered prayer reaches his hometown or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, he should offer full prayers. And if a person who is not on a journey and does not offer prayer at its prime time and then proceeds on a journey, he should offer the prayer during his journey in shortened form.

Rule no.1361. If the midday, afternoon, or evening prayers of a traveller who should have offered shortened prayers becomes Qadha (lapses), he should perform its Qadha as shortened prayer, even if he offers the Qadha at his hometown or while he is not travelling. And if a non-traveller makes one of the above three prayers Qadha, he should perform its Qadha as full, even if he may be travelling at the time he offers the Qadha. And the employees or the traders who travel the prescribed limit to different cities every day in connection with trade or employment should offer shortened prayers during their journey and full prayers at the places of their residence and trade or employment. And they should reach the place of their trade or employment before midday and return back to home from the place of trade or employment after midday when they are fasting.

Rule no.1362. It is recommended that a traveller should say thirty times after every shortened prayer: "Subhanallahi walhamdu lillahi wa la ilaha illallahu wallahu Akbar". More emphasis is laid on this after midday, afternoon and evening prayers. In fact, it is better that it is repeated sixty times after these three prayers. Preachers and priests or the persons who don’t stay at home continuously for ten days are “katheer-ul-safar” (i.e. among those who travel often as part of their profession) and they will offer full prayers and will also observe fasts.

Qadha prayers

Rule no.1363. A person who does not offer any of his daily prayers within time, he should offer Qadha prayer (i.e. lapsed prayer), even if was sleeping or was unconscious during the entire time prescribed for the prayer; but the women who have to abandon the daily prayers or any other obligatory prayers due to menstruation or lochial discharge, do not have to offer any Qadha for them.

Rule no.1364. If a person realises after the time for the prayer has lapsed that the prayer which he offered in time was void, he should perform its Qadha prayer.

Rule no.1365. A person obliged to offer Qadha prayers should not be careless about offering them, although it is not obligatory for him to offer it immediately.

Rule no.1366. A person who has Qadha prayers obligated on him, he can offer recommended prayers.

Rule no.1367. If a person suspects that he might be obligated to offer Qadha or that the prayers offered by him were not valid, it is recommended that he should offer their Qadha.

Rule no.1368. It is not necessary to maintain sequential order in the offering of Qadha, except in the case of prayers for which order has been prescribed, like midday and afternoon prayer or sunset and evening prayers of the same day. However, it is better to maintain order in other Qadha prayers also.

Rule no.1369. If a person wishes to offer some Qadha prayers for other than the daily prayers, like the Prayer of Phenomena, or, for example, if he wishes to offer one daily prayer and a few other prayers, it is not necessary to maintain order in offering them.

Rule no.1370. If a person forgets the sequential order of the prayers which he has not offered, it is better that he should offer them in such a way that he would be sure that he has offered them in the order in which they lapsed. For example, if it is obligatory for him to offer one Qadha prayer of midday prayer and one of sunset prayer and he does not know which of them lapsed first, he should first offer one Qadha for sunset prayer and thereafter one for midday prayer and then one for sunset prayer once again, or he should offer one midday prayer and then one sunset prayer and then one midday prayer once again, so that he is sure that the Qadha prayer which lapsed first has been offered first.

Rule no.1371. If the midday prayer of one day and afternoon prayer of another day, or two midday prayers or two afternoon prayers of a person become Qadha, and if he does not know which of them lapsed first, it will be sufficient if he offers two prayers of four units each, with the intention that the first is the Qadha prayer of the first day, and the second is the Qadha prayer of the second day.

Rule no.1372. If one midday prayer and one evening prayer, or one afternoon prayer and one evening prayer of a person become Qadha, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, it is better that he should perform their Qadha in a way that would ensure that he has maintained the order. For example, if one midday prayer and one evening prayer have lapsed, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, he should first offer one midday prayer, followed by one evening prayer, and then one midday prayer once again, or he should first offer one evening prayer, and thereafter one midday prayer, and then one evening prayer once again.

Rule no.1373. If a person knows that he has not offered a prayer consisting of four units but does not know whether it is midday or evening prayer, it will be sufficient to offer a four unit prayer with the intention of offering Qadha prayer for the prayer not offered. And as far as reciting loudly or silently is concerned, he will have an option.

Rule no.1374. If five prayers of a person have lapsed one after another and he does not know which of them was first, he should offer the prayers in order. For example, he commences with dawn prayer and after having offered midday, afternoon, sunset and evening prayers, he should offer again dawn, midday, afternoon and sunset prayers. This way he will ensure the requisite order.

Rule no.1375. If a person knows that one prayer on each day has lapsed but does not know its order, it is better that he should offer daily prayers of five days; and if his six prayers of six days have lapsed, he should offer six days' daily prayers. Thus for every Qadha prayer of an additional day, he should offer an additional day's prayers, so that he may become sure that he has offered the prayers in the same order in which they had become Qadha. For example, if he has not offered seven prayers of seven days, he should perform Qadha prayers of seven complete days.

Rule no.1376. If a person has a number of dawn or midday prayers Qadha obligated upon him and he does not know their exact number, or has forgotten, for example, if he does not know whether they were three, four or five prayers, it will be sufficient if he offers the smaller number. However, it is better that he should offer enough Qadha prayers to ensure, that he has offered all of them. For example, if he has forgotten how many dawn prayers of his have become Qadha and is certain that they were not more than ten, he should, as a measure of precaution, offer ten dawn prayers.

Rule no.1377. If a person has only one Qadha prayer of previous days, it is better that he should offer it first and then start offering prayers of that day. And if he has no pending Qadha of previous days but has one or more of the same day, if possible it is better that he should offer the Qadha prayers of that day before offering the present obligatory prayers.

Rule no.1378. If a person remembers during the prayer that one or more prayers of that same day have become Qadha, or that he has to offer only one Qadha prayer of the previous days, he should convert his intention to Qadha prayer, provided that time allows and converting the intention is possible. For example, if he remembers before the bowing of the third unit in midday prayer that his dawn prayer was Qadha, and if the time for midday prayer is not narrow, he should convert his intention to dawn prayer, and complete it with two units, and then offer midday prayer. But, if the time is limited, or if he cannot convert his intention to Qadha, like when he remembers in the bowing of the third unit of midday that he has not offered the Dawn prayer, and by converting the intention to dawn prayers one bowing (which is an elemental part of prayer) will be increased, he should not change his intention to the Qadha of dawn prayer.

Rule no.1379. If a person is required to offer a number of Qadha prayers of previous days together with one or more Qadha prayers of that very day, and if he does not have time to offer Qadha of all of them, or does not wish to offer Qadha of all of them on that day, it is recommended to offer the Qadha of that day before offering the unlapsed prayers, and it is better that after offering previous Qadha, he should once again offer the Qadha of that day, which he had offered earlier before the unlapsed prayer of that day.

Rule no.1380. As long as a person is alive, no other person can offer his Qadha on his behalf, even if he himself is unable to offer them.

Rule no.1381. The Qadha prayers can be offered in congregation, irrespective of whether the prayer of the imam is praying within time or offering lapsed (Qadha) prayers, and it is not necessary that both of them should be offering the same prayer; there is no harm if a person offers Qadha dawn prayer with the midday prayer or afternoon prayer of the imam.

Rule no.1382. It is recommended that a discerning child, one who can distinguish between good and evil, is made to form the habit of praying regularly and to perform other acts of worship. In fact, it is recommended that he is encouraged to offer lapsed (Qadha) prayers.

The Qadha prayers of the father which is obligatory on the eldest son

Rule no.1383. If a person did not offer some of his obligatory prayers and was not able to offer Qadha, and he disobeyed the order of Almighty God by leaving them unoffered, after his death it is upon his eldest son, as an obligatory precaution, to perform those lapsed (Qadha) prayers, or he may hire someone to perform them. The Qadha prayers of his mother is not obligatory upon him, though it is better if he performs them.

Rule no.1384. If the eldest son doubts whether or not his father had any Qadha obligated upon him, he is under no obligation.

Rule no.1385. If the eldest son knows that his father had a certain number of Qadha prayers obligated upon him, but he is in doubt whether his father offered them or not, he should offer them as a precaution.

Rule no.1386. If it is not known as to who is the eldest son of a person, it is not obligatory on any of the sons to offer their father's Qadha prayers. However, the obligatory precaution is that they should divide his Qadha prayers between them or should draw lots for offering them.

Rule no.1387. If a dying person makes a will that someone should be hired to offer his Qadha prayers and if the hired person performs them correctly, the eldest son will be free from his obligation.

Rule no.1388. If the eldest son wishes to offer the Qadha prayers of his mother, then in the matter of loud or silent recitations in prayer, he will follow the rules which apply to him. So, he should offer the Qadha prayers of his mother for the first two units of dawn, sunset and evening prayers loudly.

Rule no.1389. If a person has to offer his own Qadha prayers and he also wishes to offer the Qadha prayers of his parents, whichever he offers first will be in order.

Rule no.1390. If the eldest son was minor or insane at the time of his father's death, he should offer the Qadha of his father when he attains puberty or becomes sane.

Rule no.1391. If the eldest son of a person dies before offering the Qadha prayer of his father, the second son is under no obligation.

Congregational prayers

Rule no.1392. It is recommended that obligatory prayers, especially the daily prayers, are performed in congregation; and greater emphasis has been laid on congregational dawn, sunset and evening prayers for those who live in the neighbourhood of a mosque and for those who are able to hear the Adhan.

Rule no.1393. It has been reported in authentic traditions that the congregational prayer is twenty-five times better than the prayer offered alone.

Rule no.1394. It is not permissible to absent oneself from the congregational prayer unduly, and it is not proper to abandon congregational prayer without a justifiable excuse.

Rule no.1395. It is recommended to defer prayer with an intention to participate in congregational prayer because it is better than the individual prayer offered at its prime time. However, the prayer offered alone at its prime time is better than a congregational prayer which is delayed after the prime time. Similarly, a short congregational prayer is better than a prolonged prayer offered alone.

Rule no.1396. When congregational prayer is being offered, it is recommended for a person who has already offered his prayer alone to repeat the prayer in congregation. And if he learns later that his first prayer was void, the second prayer will suffice.

Rule no.1397. If the imam (leader of the congregation) or the ma'moom (follower in the congregation) wishes to join a congregational prayer again after having already prayed in congregation once, and if there is no probability of invalidation of the offered prayer, then it is problematic to join a congregational prayer again – except in the situation where one will lead the second congregation, provided that there is at least one ma’moom who has not offered his obligatory prayer.

Rule no.1398. If a person is so obsessed with doubts and anxiety during prayer which leads to its invalidity, and if he finds peace only in congregational prayer, he must offer prayer in congregation.

Rule no.1399. If a father or a mother orders his/her son to offer prayer in congregation and if not offering congregational prayer causes disobedience, then congregational prayer becomes obligatory on him, and in any other situation it is not obligatory.

Rule no.1400. Recommended prayers cannot be offered in congregation in any situation, except Istisqa prayer (invoked for the rain) or prayer which was obligatory at one time, but became recommended later, like the prayers of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, which are obligatory during the presence of infallible Imam (A.S.) and are recommended during his occultation.

Rule no.1401. When an imam is leading a congregation for the daily prayer, one can follow him for any of the daily prayers.

Rule no.1402. If the imam of the congregation is offering his own Qadha, or on behalf of another person whose Qadha is certain, he can be followed. However, if he is offering the Qadha based on precaution, for himself or on behalf of somebody else, it is not permissible to follow him.

Rule no.1403. If a person does not know whether the prayer of the imam is an obligatory daily prayer or a recommended prayer, he cannot follow him.

Rule no.1404. For the validity of congregation, it is a condition that there should be no obstruction between the imam and the follower, nor between one follower and the other follower, one who whom is a link the other and the imam. An obstruction means something which separates them, and it prevents them seeing each other, like in the case of a curtain, or a wall. Therefore, if there is an obstruction at any time of the prayer between the imam and the followers or between the followers themselves, thus breaking the link, congregation will be void. But women are exempted from this rule, as will be explained in due course.

Rule no.1405. If the persons standing at the ends of the first row cannot see the imam because the line is very long, they can still follow him; similarly if the following rows are very long and persons standing at the far ends cannot see the row which is in front of their row, they can follow the congregation.

Rule no.1406. If the rows of the congregation extend to the gate of the mosque, the prayer of a person standing in front of the gate behind the line will be in order and the prayer of those followers who stand behind him will also be valid. In fact, the prayer of those who are standing on either sides and are linked with the congregation by means of another follower will also be in order.

Rule no.1407. As a precaution, the place where the imam stands should not be higher than the place of the follower. And if the ground has a slope and the Imam stands at the higher end, but if the slope is so small that people ordinarily consider the ground as flat, there will be no objection.

Rule no.1408. In the congregational prayer, there is no objection if the place where followers stand is higher than that of the Imam. But if it is so high that it cannot be considered that they have assembled together, then the congregation is not in order.

Rule no.1409. If a person whose prayer is void stands between persons in one line, thus causing a distance, their prayer in congregation will become void, and they cannot follow the imam.

Rule no.1410. If after the Takbeer of the imam, the persons in the front row are ready for prayer and are about to say Takbeer, a person standing in the back row can say Takbeer. However, the recommended precaution is that he should wait until the Takbeer of the front row has been pronounced.

Rule no.1411. If a person knows that the prayer of one of the rows in front is void, he cannot follow the imam in the back rows, but if he does not know whether the prayer of those persons are in order or not, he may follow.

Rule no.1412. If a person knows that the prayer of the imam is void, for example, if he knows that the imam is without ablution though the imam himself may not be mindful of this fact, he cannot follow that imam.

Rule no.1413. If the follower learns after the prayer that the imam was not a just person ('Adil), or was a disbeliever, or his prayer was void for any other reason, like having no ablution, his own prayer will be valid, if he has not committed an act forgetfully which invalidates his individual prayer, like having performed an extra bowing.

Rule no.1414. If a person doubts during prayer whether he has followed the imam or not, he will rely upon the signs which satisfactorily lead him to believing that he has been following. For example, if he finds himself listening silently to the recitation of the imam, he should complete the prayer with the congregation. But if he is in a situation where no such decision can be made, for example, if he is offering bowing or prostration, he should complete his prayer as one offered alone.

Rule no.1415. If a person decides to separate himself during congregational prayer into the intention of individual prayer, and if he did not have the intention from the beginning to separate himself, then there is no objection. But if he has the intention of doing so from beginning, then it is problematic.

Rule no.1416. If the follower makes an intention of praying individually after the imam has recited chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, he should as an obligatory precaution recite al-Hamd and the other chapter. But if he makes such an intention before the imam has completed chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, it will be necessary for him to recite the part recited by the imam.

Rule no.1417. If a person makes the intention of praying individually during the congregation prayer, he cannot revert back to congregational prayer again. But if he is undecided whether he should make the intention of praying individually or not and eventually decides to end the prayer with congregation, even then his prayer with the congregation will not be in order.

Rule no.1418. If a person doubts whether he had made an intention of praying individually during the congregational prayer, he should consider that he had not made the intention.

Rule no.1419. If a person joins the imam at the time of bowing and participates in the bowing of the imam, his prayer is in order, even if the dhikr by the imam may have come to an end, and it will be treated as the first unit. However, if he goes to the bowing and misses the imam's bowing, i.e. the imam stood up after the bowing, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1420. If a person joins the imam when he is in bowing, and as he bows he doubts whether or not he reached the bowing of the imam, his prayer will be void.

Rule no.1421. If a person joins the imam when he is in bowing, but before he goes to the extent of bowing the imam raises his head from his bowing, as an obligatory precaution he should make the intention of individual prayer.

Rule no.1422. If a person joins the imam from the beginning of the prayer or during the time of recitation of chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter and if it so happens that before he goes into bowing the imam raises his head from bowing, his prayer will be in order.

Rule no.1423. If a person arrives for prayer when the imam is reciting the last doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) and if he wishes to earn the reward of congregational prayer, he should sit down after making his intention and pronouncing Takbeeratul-Ihram, and recite the doctrinal testimony with the imam, but not the salutations (salam), and then wait until the imam says salutations of the prayer; then he should stand up, and make the intention again and without pronouncing Takbeer, begin to recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter treating it as the first unit of his prayers.

Rule no.1424. The followers should not stand in front of the imam and as an obligatory precaution, when there is only one male follower, he stand at the right side slightly behind Imam. But if the followers are many, they should stand in line behind the Imam. In the first situation (when there is only one male follower), if the height of the follower is greater than the imam he should stand in such a way that while bowing or prostrating he remains behind the imam.

Rule no.1425. If the imam is a male and the follower is a female and if there is a curtain or something similar between that woman and the imam, or between that woman and another male follower, and the woman is linked to the imam through that male, there is no harm in it.

Rule no.1426. If after the commencement of the prayer, a curtain or something similar intervenes between the follower and the imam, or between one follower and the other, through whom the follower is linked to the Imam, the congregation will be invalidated and it will be necessary for the follower to act according to obligation of an individual.

Rule no.1427. As an obligatory precaution, the distance between the place where the follower performs prostration and where the imam stands should not be more than a metre, and the same rule applies to a person who is linked with the imam through another follower standing in front. And the recommended precaution is that the distance between the place where the follower performs prostration and the place of the follower standing in front should be little.

Rule no.1428. If a follower is linked to the imam by means of a person on his either side and is not linked to the imam in front directly, the obligatory precaution is that he should not be at a distance of more than a metre from his companions on either side.

Rule no.1429. If during the prayer a distance of one metre occurs between the follower and the imam, or between the follower and the person through whom he is linked to the imam, he (the follower) should continue his prayer with the intention of praying individually and his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1430. If the prayer of all the persons who are in the front row comes to an end and immediately after that they follow the imam for another prayer, the validity of congregational prayer of the people in the back rows is problematic.

Rule no.1431. If a person joins the Imam in the second Unit, it is not necessary for him to recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter but he should recite Qunoot (personal supplication) and doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) with the imam. The precaution is that at the time of reciting the doctrinal testimony, he should keep the fingers of his hands and the front part of his feet on the ground and raise his knees. And after the doctrinal testimony, he should stand up with the imam and should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter. And if he does not have time for the other chapter, he should complete chapter al-Hamd and join the imam in bowing. And if he cannot join the imam in bowing, the obligatory precaution is that he should complete his prayer individually.

Rule no.1432. If a person joins the imam when he is in the second unit of the prayer of four units, he should sit after the two prostrations in the second unit, which will be the third of the imam, and recite the obligatory parts of the doctrinal testimony and should then stand up. And if he does not have time to recite the Tasbeehat thrice, he should recite it once, and then join the imam in bowing.

Rule no.1433. If the imam is in the third or fourth unit and one knows that if he joins him and recites chapter al-Hamd he will not be able to reach him in bowing, as an obligatory precaution he should wait until the imam goes to the bowing and then join.

Rule no.1434. If a person joins the imam when he is in the state of standing (Qiyam) of the third or fourth unit, he should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, and if he does not have time for the other chapter he should complete chapter al-Hamd and join the imam in bowing. If he cannot join the imam in bowing, the obligatory precaution is that he should change his intention to praying individually.

Rule no.1435. If a person who knows that if he completes the other chapter (to be recited after al-Hamd) or Qunoot (personal supplication) he will not be able to join the imam in his bowing, yet he purposely recites the chapter or Qunoot and misses the imam in bowing, his prayer is in order and should act according to the rules of individual prayer.

Rule no.1436. If a person is satisfied that if he commences the other chapter or completes it, he will be able to join the Imam in his bowing provided that the chapter does not take very long, it is better for him to commence the chapter or to complete it if he has already started. But if the chapter will take too long, as an obligatory precaution he should not commence it, and if he has commenced it, he should not complete it.

Rule no.1437. If a person is sure that if he recites the other chapter he will be able to join the imam in bowing, and then he recites the chapter and misses the imam in bowing, his congregational prayer is in order.

Rule no.1438. If the imam is standing and the follower does not know in which unit he is, he can join him, but he should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter with the intention of complying with the order of Allah, though he may come to know later that the imam was in the first or second unit.

Rule no.1439. If a person does not recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter under the impression that the imam is in the first or second unit and realises after bowing that he was in the third or fourth, his prayer is in order. However, if he realises this before bowing, he should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, and if he does not have sufficient time for this he should only recite Al-Hamd and join the imam while bowing, and if he can not join while bowing, as an obligatory precaution he should make the intention of praying individually.

Rule no.1440. If a person recites chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter under the impression that the imam is in the third or fourth Unit and realises before or after bowing that he was in the first or second unit, his (i.e. the follower’s) prayer is in order, and if he realises this while reciting chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, it will not be necessary for him to complete them.

Rule no.1441. If a congregational prayer begins while a person is offering a recommended prayer and if he is not sure that if he completes his recommended prayer he will be able to join the congregational prayer, it is recommended to abandon the recommended prayer and join the congregational prayer. In fact, if he is not certain that he will be able to join the first unit, he should follow this rule.

Rule no.1442. If a congregational prayer begins while a person is offering a prayer of three or four units and if he has not gone into bowing of the third unit and is not sure whether upon completion he will be able to join the congregational prayer, it is recommended to end the prayer with the intention of recommended prayer of two units and join the congregational prayer.

Rule no.1443. If the prayer of the imam comes to an end but the follower is still reciting the doctrinal testimony or the first salutation, it is not necessary for him to make the intention of praying individually.

Rule no.1444. If a person is behind the imam by one Unit, it is better that when the imam is reciting the doctrinal testimony of the last unit, he (the follower) should place the fingers of his hands and the front part of his feet on the ground and raise his knees and wait until the imam recites the salutations of the prayer and then stand up. And if he makes the intention of praying individually at that very moment, there is no harm in it. But if he made the intention of praying individually from the beginning, the validity of his prayer is problematic.

Qualifications of an imam of congregational prayer

Rule no.1445. It is necessary that the imam of the congregational prayer should be:

Adult (Baligh)

Sane

Ithna 'Ashari Shi'ah

Just (`Adil)

Of legitimate birth

Able to offer the prayer correctly

Furthermore, if the follower is a male, the imam also should be a male. If a child, who can discern between good and evil, follows a child who can also discern between good and evil, there is no harm, but it cannot be called a congregation at all.

Rule no.1446. If a person who once considered an imam to be just, doubts whether he continues to be just, he can follow him.

Rule no.1447. A person, who offers prayer standing, cannot follow a person who offers his prayer while sitting or lying, and a person who offers his prayer while sitting, cannot follow a person who offers his prayer while lying.

Rule no.1448. A person, who offers prayer sitting, can follow another person who offers his prayer while sitting. But if a person offers prayer while lying, for him to follow a person who offers prayers in sitting or lying position is a problematic matter.

Rule no.1449. If the imam, because of some justified excuse, leads the prayer in an impure dress, or with dry ablution, or jabeera ablution, it is permissible to follow him.

Rule no.1450. If the imam is suffering from incontinence, whereby he cannot control his urine or excretion, it is permissible to follow him. Moreover, a woman, who is in the state of menstrual irregular discharge, can follow a woman who is in the same state.

Rule no.1451. It is better that a person who suffers from blotches or leprosy does not lead the congregational prayer, and on the basis of obligatory precaution, a person who has been subjected to Islamic punishment should not be followed. Similarly, people of the city should not follow a vagabond.

Rules relating to congregational prayer

Rule no.1452. When a follower makes his intention, it is necessary for him to specify the imam. But, it is not necessary for him to know his name. If he makes the intention that he is following the imam of the present congregation, his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1453. It is necessary for the follower to recite all parts of the prayer himself, except chapter al-Hamd and the following chapter. However, if his first or second unit coincides with the third or fourth unit of the imam, he should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter.

Rule no.1454. If the follower hears chapter al-Hamd and the following chapter of the imam in the first and second unit of the dawn, sunset, and evening prayers-- he should not recite them, even if he is unable to distinguish the words. And if he does not hear the voice of the imam, it is recommended that he should recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter silently. But if he recites them aloud accidently, there is no harm.

Rule no.1455. If the follower hears some words of chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter recited by the imam, as an obligatory precaution, he should not recite al-Hamd or the other chapter.

Rule no.1456. If the follower recites chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter forgetfully, or recites chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter thinking that the voice he heard was not the voice of the imam, and if he later realises that it was the voice of the imam, his prayer is in order.

Rule no.1457. If a follower doubts whether he is hearing the voice of the imam, or if he does not know whether the voice he hears is that of the imam or someone else, he can recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter.

Rule no.1458. The follower should not recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter in the first and second units of midday and evening prayers, and it is recommended that instead of them he should recite dhikr.

Rule no.1459. The follower should not say Takbeeratul-Ihram before the imam. As an obligatory precaution, he should not say the Takbeer until the Takbeer of the imam is completed.

Rule no.1460. If the follower says the salutations by mistake before the imam does, his prayer is in order, and it is not necessary that he should say salutations again along with the imam. And even if he had the intention of doing so from the beginning of the prayer, and says the salutations before the Imam intentionally, there is no objection.

Rule no.1461. If a follower recites the other parts of prayer other than Takbeeratul-Ihram and salutations before the imam, there is no objection. But, if he hears them being recited by the imam, or if he knows when the imam is going to recite them, the recommended precaution is that he should not recite them before the imam.

Rule no.1462. It is necessary for the follower to perform all acts like bowing and prostration with the imam or a little after him, if he performs them before the imam, or after a considerable delay, intentionally, his congregational prayer becomes void. However, if he converts to praying individually, his prayer will be in order.

Rule no.1463. If a follower raises his head from bowing before the imam forgetfully, and if the Imam is still in bowing, he should return to bowing, and then raise his head with the imam. In this case, the extra bowing, which is an elemental part, will not invalidate the prayer. However, if the imam raises his head before the follower reaches him, the prayer of the follower will be void.

Rule no.1464. If a follower raises his head forgetfully, and sees that the imam is in prostration, he should return to prostration, and if it happens in both prostrations, the prayer will not be void, although an elemental part has been added.

Rule no.1465. If a person raises his head from prostration before the imam forgetfully, and as he returns to prostration he realises that the imam has already raised his head, his prayer is in order. But, if it happens in both prostrations, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1466. If a follower raises his head from bowing or prostration before the imam by mistake, and does not return to bowing or prostration forgetfully, or thinking that he will not reach the imam, his congregational prayer is in order.

Rule no.1467. If a follower raises his head from prostration and sees that the imam is still in prostration, he joins the imam in prostration thinking that it is imam's first, and later realises that it was actually the imam's second prostration, the follower should consider his own prostration also as the second. But if he goes into prostration thinking that it is the second prostration of the imam, and later learns that it was imam's first, he should join the imam in that prostration with the intention that he is prostrating with imam, and also join the imam in the subsequent one. In both cases, however, it is better that he prays again, after completing the congregational prayer.

Rule no.1468. If a follower starts bowing before the imam by mistake, and realises that if he raises his head he may reach some part of the recitation (Qira`ah) of the Imam, and if he does so, and then goes to bowing again with the imam, his congregational prayer is in order. And if he does not return intentionally, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1469. If a follower goes to the bowing before the imam by mistake, and realises that if he returns to the state of standing (Qiyam), he will not reach any part of the recitation of the imam, if he raises his head just for the sake of offering prayer with the imam, and then goes to the bowing again with imam, his congregational prayer is in order. Also, if he does not return (to the state of standing) intentionally, his prayer will be in order, and will become individual (rather than congregational).

Rule no.1470. If a follower goes to the prostration before the imam by mistake, and if he raises his head with the intention of joining the imam and offering the prostration with the imam, his congregational prayer is in order. And if he does not return intentionally, his prayer is in order, but it will turn into individual prayer.

Rule no.1471. If the imam mistakenly recites Qunoot (personal supplication) in a unit which does not have Qunoot, or recites the doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) in a unit which does not have the doctrinal testimony, the follower should not recite the Qunoot or the doctrinal testimony. But, he cannot go to the bowing before the imam or rise before the imam rises. In fact, he should wait until the Qunoot or the doctrinal testimony of the imam ends, and offer the remaining prayer with him.

Guidelines for the imam and the follower

Rule no.1472. If there is only one male follower, it is an obligatory precaution that he stands a little behind at the right side of the imam, and if there is only one or a few female followers, they should stand behind the imam, and if there is one male, and one or more females in the congregation, the male should position himself slightly behind to the right of the imam, and the females should all stand behind the Imam. When there are many male followers and one or many female followers in the congregation, the male followers should stand behind the imam, and the female followers should stand behind the male followers.

Rule no.1473. If the imam and the followers are both women, the obligatory precaution is that all of them should stand in a line, and the imam should not stand in front of the others.

Rule no.1474. It is recommended that the imam positions himself in the middle of the line, and the learned and pious persons occupy the first row.

Rule no.1475. It is recommended that the rows of the congregation are properly arranged, and that there be no gap between the persons standing in one row, all standing shoulder to shoulder.

Rule no.1476. It is recommended that after “Qad qamatis salah” has been pronounced in Iqamah, the followers should rise for prayer.

Rule no.1477. It is recommended that the imam of the congregation should take into account the condition of those followers who may be infirm or weaker, and should not prolong the Qunoot (personal supplication), bowing and prostration, except when he knows that the people following him are so inclined.

Rule no.1478. It is recommended that while reciting chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter and the dhikr loudly, the imam of the congregation makes his voice audible. But care must be taken to see that the voice is not abnormally loud.

Rule no.1479. If the imam realises in bowing that a person who has just arrived wants to join him, it is recommended that he prolongs the bowing twice over. He should then stand up, even if he may realise that another person has also arrived to join.

Things which are hateful in congregational prayer

Rule no.1480. If there is vacant space in the rows of the congregation, it is hateful for a person to stand alone.

Rule no.1481. It is hateful for the follower to recite the dhikrs in the prayer in such a way that the imam hears them.

Rule no.1482. It is hateful for a traveller, who offers midday, afternoon and evening prayers in shortened form (two units), to lead a person who is not a traveller. And it is hateful for a person who is not a traveller to follow a traveller in those prayers.

Prayer of Natural Phenomena (Salatul-Aayaat)

Rule no.1483. The Prayer of Natural Phenomena, whose methods will be explained later, becomes obligatory due to the following four things:

(i) Solar eclipse

(ii) Lunar eclipse

The prayer becomes obligatory even if the moon or the sun is partially eclipsed, and even if they do not engender any fear.

(iii) Earthquake, even if no one is frightened.

(iv) Thunder and lightning, red and black cyclone and other similar celestial phenomena that frightens most of the people.

Rule no.1484. Similarly, the Prayer of Phenomena should be offered as an obligatory precaution for the terrestrial events like receding sea water, or falling mountains, which engender fear in these circumstances.

Rule no.1485. If several events which make the Prayer of Phenomena obligatory occur together, one should offer the Prayer of Phenomena for each of them. For example, if a solar eclipse as well as an earthquake takes place, one should offer a separate Prayer of Phenomena for each of these two occurrences.

Rule no.1486. If a number of lapsed (Qadha) Prayers of Natural Phenomena are obligatory on a person, irrespective of whether they have become obligatory due to one and the same thing, like, solar eclipse occurring three times, or due to different events like a solar eclipse, a lunar eclipse and an earthquake, it is not necessary for him while offering the Qadha prayers to specify the event for which he is offering the prayer.

Rule no.1487. Offering of the Prayer of Natural Phenomena is obligatory for the residents of only that town in which the event takes place. It is not obligatory for the people of other towns.

Rule no.1488. The time of Prayer of Natural Phenomena sets in as the eclipse starts, and remains until the eclipse is over. It is better, however, not to delay the prayer until the reversal of eclipse commences.

Rule no.1489. If a person delays offering the Prayer of Natural Phenomena until the sun or the moon starts coming out of eclipse, the intention of Ada (i.e. praying within time) will be in order, but if he offers the prayer after the eclipse is over, he should make an intention of Qadha.

Rule no.1490. If the duration of the solar or lunar eclipse allows time for one or less unit, the obligation of the Prayer of Natural Phenomena is based on precaution. And if the duration of the eclipse is more than this, but a person could not offer prayer until the time to offer one unit remains before the eclipse is over, the Prayer of Natural Phenomena is obligatory and he should pray with the intention of Ada (i.e. within time).

Rule no.1491. When an earthquake, thunder lightning and other similar events take place, a person should offer the Prayer of Natural Phenomena immediately, and he should not allow undue delay, so that it cannot be treated as a delayed prayer among people, and if one delays he would have sinned, and then as a precaution, the Prayer of Natural Phenomena should be offered without the intention of Ada (unlapsed) or Qadha (lapsed).

Rule no.1492. If a person did not know about the solar or the lunar eclipse, and came to know after the eclipse was over, he should offer its Qadha if it was a total eclipse. And if he comes to know that the eclipse was partial, Qadha will not be obligatory on him.

Rule no.1493. If certain people say that the sun or the moon has been eclipsed, but a person hearing this is not satisfied with what they say, or none of them are reliable, and consequently does not offer the Prayer of Phenomena, if it transpires later that what they said was true, the person should offer the Prayer of Phenomena if it was a total eclipse. And if it was a partial eclipse, it is not obligatory upon him to offer Prayer of Phenomena. The same rule applies if two persons who he does not consider just, say that the sun or the moon has been eclipsed and it transpires later that they are just.

Rule no.1494. If a person is satisfied with the statement of persons who know the time of solar or lunar eclipse according to scientific calculation, as a precaution, he should offer the Prayer of Phenomena. Also, if they inform him that the sun or moon will be eclipsed at a particular time, and give him the duration of the eclipse, as an obligatory precaution, he should accept their words and act accordingly, provided that he is fully satisfied with them.

Rule no.1495. If a person realises that the Prayer of Natural Phenomena offered by him was void, he should offer it again. And if the time has passed, he should offer its Qadha, and it does not matter that the eclipse was partial or total.

Rule no.1496. If the Prayer of Natural Phenomena becomes obligatory on a person at the time of daily prayers, and if he has enough time at his disposal for both, he can offer any of them first. If the time for one of them is short, he should offer that prayer first, and if the time for both of them is short, he should offer the daily prayer first.

Rule no.1497. If a person realises during the daily prayer that the time for Prayer of Natural Phenomena is short, and if the time for daily prayer is also short, he should complete the daily prayer and then offer the Prayer of Phenomena. But if the time for daily prayer is not short, he should break that prayer and first offer the Prayer of Phenomena and then offer the daily prayer.

Rule no.1498. If a person realises while offering the Prayer of Phenomena, that the time for a daily prayer is short, he should leave the Prayer of Phenomena and start offering the daily prayer. After completing the daily prayer, and before performing any act which invalidates the prayer, he should start the Prayer of Phenomena from where he left.

Rule no.1499. If a solar or lunar eclipse, thunder, lightning or any other similar events take place when a woman is in her menses or in the state of lochia, it will not be obligatory for her to offer the Prayer of Phenomena, nor is there any Qadha obligated upon her.

Method of offering the Prayer of Phenomena

Rule no.1500. The Prayer of Phenomena consists of two units, and there are five bowings in each unit. Its method is as follows:

After making the intention of offering the prayer, one should say Takbeer (“Allahu Akbar”) and recite chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter, and then perform the bowing. Thereafter, he should stand and recite chapter al-Hamd and another chapter and then perform another bowing. He should repeat this action until he has carried it out five times in total, and when he stands after the fifth bowing, he should perform two prostrations, and then stand up to perform the second unit in the same manner as he has done in the first. Then he should recite the doctrinal testimony (tashahhud) and salutations (salam).

Rule no.1501. The Prayer of Phenomena can also be offered in the following (shorter) manner:

After making the intention to offer the Prayer of Phenomena and saying the Takbeer and reciting chapter al-Hamd, a person is allowed to divide the verses of the other chapter of the Quran into five parts – he will recite the one verse, or more or less, and thereafter perform the bowing. He should then stand up and recite the second part of the chapter (without reciting al-Hamd again), and then perform another bowing. He should repeat this action and recite the final part of the chapter before performing the fifth bowing.

For example, he may say (after al-Hamd): “Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem”, with the intention of reciting chapter al-Ikhlas, and then perform the bowing. He should then stand up and say: “Qul huwallahu Ahad”, and perform the second bowing. He should then stand and recite: “Allahus-Samad”, and then perform the third bowing. He should stand again and recite: “Lam yalid wa lam yulad” and perform the fourth bowing. He will stand and then recite: “Wa lam yakun lahu kufuwan ahad”, and perform the fifth and final bowing of the unit. He will then perform the two prostrations and rise of the second unit, in which he will repeat the actions of the first unit. At the end, he should recite the doctrinal testimony and the salutations after the two prostrations.

It is also permissible to divide a chapter into less than five parts. In that event, however, it is necessary that when the chapter is over, one should recite chapter al-Hamd before the next bowing.

Rule no.1502. There is no harm if in the first unit of the Prayer of Phenomena a person after chapter al-Hamd recites another chapter five times, and in the second unit recites chapter al-Hamd, and divides the other Chapter into five parts.

Rule no.1503. The things which are obligatory and recommended in the daily prayers are also obligatory and recommended in the Prayer of Phenomena. However, if the Prayer of Phenomena is offered in congregation, it is recommended to say 'As-Salaah' three times instead of Adhan and Iqamah. If the prayer is not being offered in congregation, it is not necessary to say anything.

Rule no.1504. It is recommended that the person offering the Prayer of Phenomena should say Takbeer before and after bowing, and after the fifth and tenth bowing he should say “Sami'Allahu liman hamida” before Takbeer.

Rule no.1505. It is recommended that the Qunoot (personal supplication) be recited before the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth bowing, but it will be sufficient if the Qunoot is recited only before the tenth bowing.

Rule no.1506. If a person doubts as to how many units he has offered in the Prayer of Phenomena, and is unable to arrive at any decision, his prayer is void.

Rule no.1507. If a person doubts whether he is in the last bowing of the first unit, or in the first bowing of the second unit, and he cannot arrive at any decision, his Prayer of Phenomena is void. But if he doubts whether he has performed four bowings or five, and if the doubt takes place before he goes into prostration, he should perform the bowing about which he is doubtful. But if he has reached the stage of prostration, he should ignore his doubt.

Rule no.1508. Every bowing of the Prayer of Phenomena is an elemental part of the prayer, and if any addition or deduction takes place intentionally or forgetfully in them, the prayer will be void.

The Prayers of Eid-ul-Fitr (The feast to end the month of fasting) and Eid-ul-Adha (The feast of immolation)

Rule no.1509. The Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha prayers are obligatory during the time of the Imam (A.S.), and it is necessary to offer them in congregation. However, during the present times when the Holy Imam (A.S.) is in Occultation, these prayers are recommended, and may be offered individually as well as in congregation.

Rule no.1510. The time for Eid prayers is from sunrise until midday.

Rule no.1511. It is recommended that Eid-ul-Adha prayer is offered after sunrise. As for Eid ul Fitr, it is recommended that one should have a breakfast after sunrise, pay the Alms of Fitrah (the end of fasts), and then offer Eid prayer.

Rule no.1512. Eid prayer has two units. In the first unit, a person should recite chapter al-Hamd and another chapter, and then they say five Takbeers, and after every Takbeer he should recite Qunoot (personal supplication). After the fifth Qunoot, he should say another Takbeer and then perform the bowing and the two prostrations. He should then stand up for the second unit, and (after al-Hamd and the other chapter) say four Takbeers, and recite the Qunoot after every Takbeer. Thereafter, he should say the fifth Takbeer and then perform the bowing and the two prostrations. After the second prostration (of the second unit) he should recite the doctrinal testimony, and then complete the prayer with the salutations.

Rule no.1513. Any dhikr or supplication will suffice in Qunoot of the Eid Prayers. However, it is better that the following supplication is recited:

“Allahumma ahlal kibriya'i wal 'azamah, wa ahlal joodi wal jaburat, wa ahlal 'afwi war rahmah, wa ahlat taqwah wal maghfirah. As`aluka bihaqqi hazal yawmil lazi ja'altahu lil muslimeena 'Eeda , wali Muhammadin sallallahu 'alaihi wa aalihi, zukhran wa sharafan wa karamatan wa mazeedah, an tusalliya 'ala Muhammad wa Aali Muhammad wa an tudkhilani fi kulli khayrin adkhalta feehi Muhammadan wa Aala Muhammad wa an tukhrijani min kulli soo'in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan wa Aala Muhammad salawatuka 'alaihi wa 'alayhim. Allahumma inni as`aluka khayra ma sa`alaka bihi `ibadukas salihoon, wa a`oozubika mim masta aza minhu `ibadukal mukhlasoon.”

Rule no.1514. During the period of the 0ccultation of the Imam (A.S.), it is recommended that two sermons be delivered after Eid prayers, and it is better that on Eid ul-Fitr, the sermons should explain rules regarding the Alms of Fitrah , and on Eid-ul-Adha, rules regarding sacrificing be explained.

Rule no.1515. No particular chapter has been specified for Eid prayer (after chapter al-Hamd). But, it is better that after reciting chapter al-Hamd in the first unit, chapter ash-Shams be recited and in the second unit chapter al-Ghashiya. Or in the first unit, to recite chapter al-A`ala, and in the second unit chapter ash-Shams.

Rule no.1516. It is recommended that Eid prayer be performed in a desert or in the open fields. However, in Makkah, it is recommended that it should be offered in Masjidul-Haram.

Rule no.1517. It is recommended to walk barefooted to attend Eid prayer in a dignified manner, and to perform a ritual bath before prayer, and to place a white turban on one's head.

Rule no.1518. It is recommended that in Eid prayers prostration be performed on earth, and hands be raised while saying the Takbeers. It is also recommended that a person who is offering Eid prayer alone, or as an imam of the congregation, recites the prayer loudly.

Rule no.1519. It is recommended that the following Takbeer supplication be recited on Eid-ul-Fitr night (i.e. the night preceding the Eid day), after sunset and mvening prayers, and on Eid day after dawn prayer, as well as after Eid prayer: "Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illallah, Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wa lillahil hamd, Allahu Akbar `alaa ma hadana"

Rule no.1520. On Eid-ul-Adha, it is recommended that the above mentioned Takbeer supplication be recited after ten prayers, of which the first is the midday prayer of Eid day and the last is the dawn of the 12th day of the month of Zil-Hajj. It is also recommended that after the above mentioned supplication, the following be recited: "Allahu Akbar 'alaa ma razaqana mim baheematil an'am, wal-hamdu lillahi `alaa ma ablana".

If a person happens to be in Mina on the day of Eid-ul-Adha, it is recommended that he should say these words after fifteen prayers, of which the first is the midday prayer of Eid day, and the last is the Dawn prayer of the 13th of Zil-Hajj.

Rule no.1521. The recommended precaution is that women should avoid going to offer Eid prayer. This precaution does not apply to elderly women.

Rule no.1522. Like in all other prayers, the follower should recite everything in the Eid prayers, except chapter al-Hamd and the other chapter.

Rule no.1523. If a follower joins the prayer at a time when the imam has already said some Takbeers, he should, while the imam performs the bowing, say all the Takbeers and Qunoots which he has missed, and it will be sufficient if in each Qunoot he says: “Subhanallah” or “Alhamdu lillah” only.

Rule no.1524. If a person joins the Eid prayer when the imam is in bowing, he can make the intention, say the first Takbeer of the prayer, and then go into bowing.

Rule no.1525. If a person forgets one prostration or doctrinal testimony in Eid prayer, he should perform it after the prayer. And if something takes place for which a prostration of forgetfulness would be necessary after daily prayer, it will not be necessary after the Eid prayer.

Hiring a person to offer prayers

Rule no.1526. After the death of a person, another person can be engaged to offer, on payment of wages, those prayers and other acts of worship which the dead person did not offer during his lifetime. And it is also in order if a person offers the services without taking payment for it.

Rule no.1527. A person can accept engagement to offer some recommended acts like visiting the sacred graves of Holy Prophet (P. B.U.H.) and the Infallibles (A.S.), on behalf of the living persons. Also he can perform some recommended acts, and dedicate their reward to living or dead persons.

Rule no.1528. A person who is hired to offer the Qadha prayers of a dead person, should be a qualified jurist, or should know the rules of the prayer correctly according to Imitation (Taqleed), or should act according to precaution, provided that he knows fully on what occasions precaution is to be observed.

Rule no.1529. At the time for making the intention, the hired person must specify the dead person, but it is not necessary that he should know his/her name. Hence, it is enough if he intends: "I am offering prayer for the person on whose behalf I am hired."

Rule no.1530. The hired person should act with the intention that he is acting to discharge the obligation of the dead person. It will not be enough if he performs an act and dedicates its reward to the dead person.

Rule no.1531. One who hires a person should be satisfied that the hired person will perform the act for which he is hired.

Rule no.1532. If it transpires that the person hired for offering prayers for a dead person has not performed it, or has performed incorrectly, another person should be hired for the purpose.

Rule no.1533. If a person doubts whether or not the hired person has performed the act, and the hired person is a reliable person, then his assurance is enough. Similarly, if he doubts whether or not the hired person has performed it correctly, he should presume that it has been correct.

Rule no.1534. A person who has some excuse, for example, if he offers prayer with dry ablution or in a sitting position, he should never be hired for offering prayers for a dead person, even if the prayers of the dead person may have become Qadha that way.

Rule no.1535. A man can be hired on behalf of a woman, and a woman can be hired on behalf of a man, and in the matter of offering prayers loudly or silently, the hired person should act according to his/her own obligation.

Rule no.1536. Observing order is not obligatory for the Qadha prayers of a dead person, except in the case of prayers whose performance is prescribed in an order, like midday and afternoon prayers or sunset and evening prayers of one day, as has been mentioned earlier.

Rule no.1537. If it is agreed with the hired person that he will accomplish it in a particular manner, the hired person should follow the agreement. If nothing has been agreed, then he can perform according to his own obligation. And the recommended precaution is that between his own obligation and that of the dead person, he should choose that which is nearer to precaution – for example, if the obligation of the dead person was to recite the Tasbeehat (recital of the third or fourth unit while standing) three times, and his own obligation is to recite it once, he should recite it three times.

Rule no.1538. If it is not agreed with the hired person how many recommended acts he will perform, he should perform as much as is usual.

Rule no.1539. If a person engages several people for offering the Qadha prayers of a dead person, it is necessary that he should fix a time for each one of them.

Rule no.1540. If a hired person agrees to offer the prayers of a dead person within one year, but he dies before the year ends, another person should be hired to offer the unoffered prayers. And if he feels that the hired person probably did not offer some prayers, even then, as an obligatory precaution, another person should be hired.

Rule no.1541. If a person hired for offering the prayers of a dead person dies before offering all the prayers, and if he had taken wages for all the prayers, if the hirer has placed a condition that he would offer all the prayers himself, the hirer can take back the proportionate amount of wages for the remaining prayers. Alternatively, he can cancel the contract and pay an adequate sum. And if it was not agreed that the hired person would offer all the prayers himself, then the heirs of the deceased should pay from his estate, and engage another person to complete the task. And if there is nothing in the estate, it is not obligatory upon the heirs.

Rule no.1542. If the hired person dies before offering all the Qadha prayers of the dead, and if he himself had some Qadha of his own, if there is any residue from his estate after acting according to the above rule, someone should be hired to perform all his Qadha if he has willed, and his heirs give permission. And if they do not permit, his one-third should be spent for the Qadha prayers.