Miscellaneous rules of Zakat

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Miscellaneous rules of Zakat

Rule no.1962. As a precaution, when wheat and barley are separated from chaff, and when dates and grapes become dry, their owner should give Zakat to the poor or separate it from his wealth. Similarly, Zakat on gold, silver, cow, sheep and camel should be given to the poor, or separated from one's wealth after the expiry of eleven months. However, if he awaits a particular poor person, or wishes to give it to a poor person with some excelling virtue, he may not separate the Zakat from his wealth.

Rule no.1963. It is not necessary that after separating Zakat, a person should pay it at once to a deserving person. But, if a deserving person is accessible, then the recommended precaution is that payment of Zakat should not be delayed.

Rule no.1964. If a person who could deliver Zakat to a deserving person did not give it, and it was lost due to his negligence, he should give its replacement.

Rule no.1965. If a person who could deliver Zakat to a deserving person, did not do so, and it was destroyed without his being careless about it, if he had delayed the payment so much that the people could not say that he had paid it in time, he should pay its substitute. And if he had not delayed it so much, for example, if he delayed two or three hours, and Zakat was lost during that time, in this condition if no deserving person was present, nothing is obligated on that person. And if a deserving person was present there, it is obligatory to pay its substitute.

Rule no.1966. If a person separates Zakat from that wealth on which Zakat was obligated, he has the right of disposal over the remaining amount, and if he separates it from his other property, he has the discretion over the entire property.

Rule no.1967. When a person has separated Zakat from his property, he cannot utilise that separated part and replace it with other payment.

Rule no.1968. If some profit accrues from the Zakat which a person has set apart – for example, if a sheep which has been separated for Zakat gives birth to a lamb – it belongs to the deserving.

Rule no.1969. If one entitled to Zakat is present when a person separates Zakat from his property, it is better that he should give the Zakat to him, except that he has a person in view who is more preferable, for some reason, to receive Zakat.

Rule no.1970. If a person trades with the property set apart for Zakat without obtaining the permission of the qualified jurist, and sustains a loss, he should not deduct anything from Zakat. However, if he makes a profit, he should give it to a person entitled to receive Zakat.

Rule no.1971. If a person gives a thing in advance to a poor person as Zakat while it has not yet become obligatory on him, it cannot be treated as Zakat. But after Zakat becomes obligatory on him, he gives a thing to a poor person, he can calculate it as Zakat, provided that the thing given is not used up, and that the poor continues to be deserving.

Rule no.1972. If a poor person knows that Zakat has not become obligatory on a particular person, and takes something from him as Zakat, and it is used up or destroyed while it is with him, he is responsible for it. And when Zakat becomes obligatory on the person, if the poor still deserving, the Zakat-payer can adjust the Zakat liability against what he had already given.

Rule no.1973. If a poor person did not know that Zakat had not become obligatory on a particular person, and he takes something from him as Zakat and it is destroyed while it is with him, the poor person will not be responsible for it, and the person who gives Zakat cannot adjust it against Zakat

Rule no.1974. It is recommended to give Zakat on cows, sheep and camels to respectable poor persons; and while giving Zakat he should give preference to his deserving relatives over others. Similarly, he should give preference to the learned persons over those who are not learned, and to those who do not beg over those who beg. But, if giving Zakat to a particular poor person is better for some other reason, it is recommended that Zakat be given to him.

Rule no.1975. It is better that Zakat is given openly, and recommended alms are given secretly.

Rule no.1976. If there are no deserving persons in one's hometown, nor can he spend it for any other purpose prescribed for Zakat, and he has no expectation that soon he will be able to find a deserving person, he should take Zakat to some other town, and spend it for an appropriate purpose. He can deduct from Zakat the expenses of taking it to the other town, and he will not be responsible if it is lost or destroyed.

Rule no.1977. Even if a deserving person is available in the home town of a person, he can take Zakat to another town. However, he himself will bear the expenses of taking it to the other town, and will be responsible if it is lost, except when he takes it with the directive of the qualified jurist.

Rule no.1978. The charges for weighing and scaling of wheat, barley, raisins and dates, which a person gives as Zakat, are to be paid by him.

Rule no.1979. If a person has to pay as Zakat two mithqals and fifteen grams of silver or more, he should not, as a recommended precaution, give less than two mithqals and fifteen grams to one poor person. Also, if he has to pay something other than silver, like wheat or barley, and its value reaches two mithqals and fifteen grams of silver, he should not, as a recommended precaution, give less than that to one poor person.

Rule no.1980. It is hateful for a man to request the deserving person to sell back to him the Zakat which he has received from him. However, if the deserving person wishes to sell the thing which he has received after its price has been agreed, the man who has given him Zakat will have priority over others.

Rule no.1981. If a person doubts whether or not he gave the Zakat which had been obligatory on him, and the property on which Zakat was due is also present, he should give Zakat even if his doubts is with regard to Zakat of earlier years. And if the liable property has perished, no Zakat is due on it, even if the doubt relates to Zakat for the current year.

Rule no.1982. It is not permissible for a poor man to compromise for a quantity less than the quantity of Zakat, or accept as Zakat something at a higher price than its actual value, or return the Zakat to the owner after receiving. But if a person owes a large sum of Zakat, and has subsequently become poor and is unable to pay Zakat, and if he repents for not having paid and seeks forgiveness from Allah, the deserving recipient can bestow it back to him after having received it.

Rule no.1983. A person can purchase the Holy Qur'an or religious books or prayer books from the Zakat property, and can even bestow it upon his children or upon persons whose maintenance is obligatory on him. And he can become the trustee of the endowment himself, and can make his children the trustee of the endowment.

Rule no.1984. A person cannot purchase property with Zakat and bestow it upon his children or upon persons whose maintenance is obligatory on him, so that they spend its income for their expenses.

Rule no.1985. A person can take Zakat from the part specified in the way of Allah to go on Pilgrimage (Hajj), to visit the holy places etc. even if he may not be poor, or has already received Zakat to meet his annual expenses.

Rule no.1986. If the owner of a property makes a poor man his agent to distribute Zakat of his wealth, and if the poor is not sure that the intention of the owner was that he himself (i.e. the poor man) should not take anything out of Zakat, in this situation he can take as much amount as he gives others.

Rule no.1987. If a poor man gets camel, cow, sheep, gold and silver as Zakat and if the conditions for Zakat becoming obligatory are fulfilled, he will have to give Zakat on them.

Rule no.1988. If two persons are joint owners of a property on which Zakat has become obligatory, and one of them pays Zakat for his share, and thereafter they divide the property, and the person who has paid Zakat knows that his partner has not paid Zakat on his share, and is not going to pay it afterwards, then the right of discretion over his own share is problematic, except if he pays the Zakat of his partner with his permission, and if he is not willing to pay it then he would pay the Zakat with the permission of the qualified jurist and get its reimbursement from his partner or from the qualified jurist.

Rule no.1989. If a person owes Khums and Zakat and also owes expiation and (payment due to) a vow etc., but he is also indebted and cannot make all these payments, and if the property on which Khums and Zakat has become obligatory has not been used up, he should give Khums and Zakat, and if it has been used up, he has a option to pay the Khums and Zakat first or pay the expiation, vowed commitment and debt.

Rule no.1990. If a person owes Khums or Zakat and has an obligation of Pilgrimage (Hajj) and is also indebted, and he dies, and his property is not sufficient for all these things, if the property on which Khums and Zakat become obligatory has not perished, Khums or Zakat should be paid and the balance should be spent on Pilgrimage and repaying the debt. And if the property on which Khums and Zakat became obligatory has perished, his property should be spent on Pilgrimage, and if anything remains it should be divided on Khums and Zakat and any debts.

Rule no.1991. If a person is acquiring knowledge and as an alternative he could be earning his livelihood, Zakat can be given to him if acquiring that knowledge is obligatory on him. And if acquiring that knowledge is recommended, he can be given Zakat only from the share of “Fee Sabeelillah” (i.e. in the way of Allah, as mentioned above). And if acquiring that knowledge is neither obligatory nor recommended, it is not permissible to give him from Zakat.