Islamic Doctrine and Deeds

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The First Part of Islamic Duty the Doctrine.


These are the principles of Religion. Three of these principles are the essential beliefs of Islam and if a person believes in them, he will be Muslim. These principals are:

Tawheed the Unity of Allah (swt) that Allah is one.

Nubuwaat the belief Prophet hood and Muhammad (saw) is the last prophet of Allah and the seal to prophet hood that there is no prophet after him.

Qayamaat to believe in Doomsday that one day this world will come to an end.


There are two extra principles in addition to the first three that concern the doctrine of Shia'ism. They are:

Adil to believe in the Justice of Allah (swt)

Imamate the Divinely appointed leadership from Allah after the prophet.

If a Muslim believes in the truth of these two principles, then he is a Shia. Thus we have a total of five principles or roots which are referred to as Asool e Deen.


The first principle Tawheed the Unity of Allah (swt)

This means that we believe in the existence of Allah (swt) and He is the Creator of everything and He is eternal and immortal. He is not Non-existent at any time. He cannot die but stays forever. He Allah the Most High is Unique and Matchless. He has no partner, no one participates with him in Creation nor provides His Livelihood. He is the creator; He makes creatures live or die. He is the only entity deserving worship and it is not allowed to worship anything else except Him. His qualities are classified in two parts:


First: The Durable Qualities.

These qualities are fit for Him only and for His position, The Most High Allah. It is not allowed to suppose that He is without anyone one of these eight qualities. They refer to His Honor and Perfection Praise be to Him.

Second: The Negative Qualities.

They are the qualities that are negated for being unsuitable for His standing and His position, Allah The Most High. He is spotless (infallible). He is far above what is wrong and bad. These are also eight.


First the eight Durable and Apparent Positive Qualities.

1) He, Praise be to Him, as He knows everything. That means He is omniscient (all knowing) and A‘lam (most-learned). Nothing can be hidden from Him. He is All Seeing and All Hearing in both the heavens and on the earth.

2) He, Allah the Most High, is able to do as He pleases and He can do anything that He chooses. This means He does not feel any inability. Everything in the universe is under His control, power and authority. He does what He wants and leaves what He wants, but He does not do anything without wisdom. He does things according to his Wisdom. He does not do things that are not befitting His status.

3) He, Praise be to Him, is alive. This means He cannot be nonbeing or dead at any time. He never dies. He created everything and He will stay forever. After the universe perishes and after mortality He will live.

4) He, Allah the Most High, wants goodness for mankind and dislikes wickedness from human beings. He hates vicious deeds to be done.

He also does good and wants us to do good. He does not do wickedness and He hates His mankind to do evil because He Himself dislikes evil and viciousness

5) He, Praise be to Him, realizes everything, He Knows all tangible things, beings and perceptions. A person realizes things by the senses, but Allah, Praise be to Him, sees and hears voices without the need of senses. Human beings realize voices by the sense of hearing via the ears. Allah hears without the use of ears. Human beings see things by their eyes, but Allah sees without eyes. We realize the texture of things by the sense of touching, while Allah realizes textures without touching. We recognize foods by the sense of taste, while Allah realizes them without a mouth. These examples indicate that Allah (swt) is above all.

6) He, Allah the Most High, is timeless from before time and eternal. He is not and has never been non existent at any time nor will He be on any day to come. He is everlasting, He will not cease to be in the future.

7) He, Praise be to Him, is a speaker. That means if He wants to speak to one of His creatures, He will create a voice in a material body, as He did for the Prophet Moses Ibn Imran (Peace be upon him). He Allah the Most High, created a voice in a tree to speak with his Prophet Moses.

8) He, Praise be to Him, is truthful and He does not lie. Lying is bad and an vile deed. The person who practices lies is either weak or deficient in character, while Allah, Praise be to Him, is strong, beautiful and He cannot feel inadequate in anyway. He does not do bad or vile deeds. So He never lies.


These are provable and apparent qualities in which every Muslim must believe.


Secondly the eight Negative Qualities

1) He, Praise be to Him, is not formed of any parts, but He is unified. He is not composed of ingredients or organs.

2) He, Praise be to Him, is not a body. He has no Dimensions, length, width or depth.

3) He does not have a color. He is not in a place. He does not feel pain or pleasure. He does not combine or react with others of the existing things.

4) He, Allah the Most High, is not affected by Health or ill-health.

5) He, Praise be to Him, is spotless, without movement and without stillness.

6) He, Praise be to Him, cannot be seen by sight, here in this world or in the other.

7) He, Allah the Most High, is partner less and matchless. He is unique and He is one only. He does not produce. He is not and was not born from another person. He has no equal. His provable and apparent qualities represent perfection and ideal states. They are not additional to Him. They are the essence of His being, praise be to Him. His ideal attributes are not acquired. He did not get those perfect features by hard work or fatigue, but they are the essence of His character.

8) He, Allah the Most High, is not in need of others. He does not need anyone but all things need Him. There is nothing in the universe without His action. What He wants to be seen of His doings, He will expose by His power and things continue by His power too. There is nothing in the universe without His choice, will and His creation. He, praise be to Him, is not changeable and alterable. He is as He was in the past, as He is now and He will stay like this in the future. All that is ideal and perfect are gathered in Him.

These are the negative qualities. Every Muslim must believe in and they must believe that Allah (swt) is far above what is meant to possess these qualities and He is infallible.


The Second Principle is Adil the Justice of Allah (swt)

Every Muslim must believe in the justice of Allah. Praise be to Him, and that He never causes injustice to anyone. Injustice is unfit for His status as Allah is Most High. He never treats a person wrongfully. A person usually turns to injustice when he is unable to practice justice and he feels so weak that he cannot restore his right or carry out his aim justly, Allah, praise be to Him, is able to do anything. He is infallible and free from bad and ugly things. He never needs injustice. He never feels unable to do something.


The Third Principle is Prophet hood

A prophet is a human being who comes to tell people, Allah's orders, Praise be to Him. He receives the orders from Him, Praise be to Him, either directly, as did Prophet Moses, or from an angel who relates a message to the prophet, but there is no human intermediary between a prophet and the message of his Lord. So the angel carries orders from Allah the Most High to the prophet and the prophet, in his turn, informs the people. A messenger is a prophet who carries a detailed system for the people and that system covers all aspects of life. As for the prophet who is a non-messenger, he comes to emphasize upon details within the system that a messenger brought to the people before him. He is a helper or assistant to the messenger, either he is contemporary with the messenger or he comes after him according to Allah's Almighty's wisdom.

The Total number of prophets is 124 thousand and there is also the same number of guardians. The master Prophets are five:

1. Prophet Noah

2. Prophet Abraham

3. Prophet Moses

4. Prophet Jesus

5. Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah

(Peace be upon them all)

Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd Al Mutalib was the last prophet of Allah Almighty and his Messenger and he was the Seal to Prophet hood meaning there is no more prophet hood after him, His message was the last one and the prophecy concluded with him.

He was born according to famous narratives in the 'year of the Elephant' on the 17th of the month of Rabi ul Awal (Hegira). He passed away from this world on the 28th of Safar in the 11th year Hegira. He was famous for his truthfulness, fidelity, correct conduct and He was known by the people as Al Sadiq (the truthful) and Al Amin (the trustworthy) from his childhood until he reached 40 years of age. He was from a pure and noble family. Allah, Praise be to Him, kept him from error and deviation. No one of his forebears did anything that is unfit for Muslim. His ancestry is traced back to Prophet Ismail (Peace be upon them all).


The Mission of Our Prophet Muhammad (saw)

When He peace upon him and his household (Ahlul Bayt), attained 40 years of age, Allah Praise be to Him, ordered him to announce his prophet hood and to call the people to give up polytheism and atheism and to follow him and believe in his statements.

That was in the Month of Rajab on the 27th according to the famous narratives of Muslim historians.


Our Belief in Prophethood

A Prophet must be infallible and be without any mistakes and disobedience, whether great or small, both before the declaration of prophet hood and after it.

1. Infallibility is by the grace of Allah, Praise be to Him. A prophet seeks assistance from Him to avoid disobedience.

2. A prophet is spotless and far above the immorality of depraved men and all His lineage is pure, this means that no one in His family has committed any of the Major sins including Adultery, meaning a Prophet is always of Pure birth dating back to Prophet Adam Peace be upon Him

3. A prophet must be the best man of his age in morals and manners. No one is better than him in the creation to whom he comes to tell his Lord's message.

4. He should be free from physical and psychological defects. For example, he should not be lame, one-eyed, have an ugly appearance, or be stupid…etc

5. He also should not be miserly, a scoundrel, mad, foolish, inclined to lusts, pleasures nor be avaricious for this world's treasures.

6. He must show people miracles to prove to them that he is a prophet sent by Allah, Praise be to Him, as our Prophet, Muhammad (saw) showed many proofs and miracles. A miracle means a supernatural action that an ordinary person cannot perform except, that Allah grants him the ability to do so.


The Most Distinguished Miracles of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

The Holy Quran:

It is the transmitted word of Allah, Praise be to Him, and is available to all people. It begins with the chapter of "Al Hamd" and is complete to the chapter of "Al Nas". This Quran is in itself an eternal miracle that the Messenger Muhammad (saw), presented to mankind. It challenged the people and is still challenging them for mankind cannot produce anything like it.


Allah, Praise be to Him said

Kul lein Ijtamaat al-enis we al-jin ala an yatoo bimithli hatha Al– Quran la yaatoone bimithlihi waloo kana badhhum libadhn dhyera.

"[ Demons ] met together to bring like this Koran, they will not be able to bring like it even they were supporters [ backers ] to each other".

He said also; [en kuntom fi raibn mima enzalna ala abidna fetoo bysortn min methlyi wa eduu shuhadeukum nen doon Allah en kuntom sadeqeen fe-en lam tafealoo wa len tafeloo fe-Itaqoo alnaar elaty wqudoha alnaas wa al-hegare].

If you were in suspicion about what we inspire and [revealed] sent down [ brought down ] to our man [our prophet] you can bring one chapter like it to prove. But you can not, and call your witnesses [evidences] in whom you believe and worship…If you are truthful. If you can not do that, and you will never to that surely, then keep [protect] yourselves from fire [ hell ] whose wood, [ fuel], is people and stones.


The Fourth Principle is Imamate

The meaning of Imamate is leadership in religious matters and worldly affairs by a person appointed and entrusted with affairs of the Muslims on behalf of the Prophet. The Imam meaning guardian or leader, receives orders from Allah, The Most High, by means of the prophet. In fact he is a successor of the Prophet and the Keeper of his jurisprudence.


Our Belief in Imamate of Al Imam (The Guardianship of a Imam)

1) The Imam is determined by Allah, Praise be to Him, and it is not allowed for the people to appoint an Imam by themselves, but Allah, Praise be to Him, through His prophet tells people who is the Imam after the prophet.

2) The Imam must be sinless. Infallibility is a Kindness and grace from Allah, Praise be to Him. It helps and assists the Imam to avoid sin and disobedience, from his birth until the end of his honorable life.

3) The Imam must be the best person of his time in physical perfection, ideals and also psychologically.                                                             He must be the most learned, best acquainted with religious and worldly affairs, courageous, generous and honest of his contemporaries. All the people are in need of him, and he is not in need of others except the Prophet (saw) from whom he learns the rules knowledge.

4) The Imam must have a pure genealogy.

5) He must perform miracles and grant dignity by his honorable hand as a guide for all in his guardianship and to prove that he has been chosen, by Allah, to succeed the Prophet (saw).


The True Imams after the Prophet

The Imams after the Prophet are twelve (peace be upon them all) as it is defined and determined from the reliable narratives (Hadith).

They are peace be upon them as follows:


The First Imam

He is Amir Al-Mumineen (The Commander of the faithful), ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him), was born in 13th before Hegira and passed away in 40 AH.


His father:

He was a believer and master of the Quraysh tribe, Abu Talib ibn‘ Abd al-Mutalib ibn Hashem.


His mother:

She was the purest woman after the prophet's mother (peace be upon her), Fatima bint e Asad ibn Hashem. Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him) was born on the 13th of Rajab ten years before the honorable Prophet's mission in Mecca and within the Kaaba, the Holy House of Almighty Allah. This honor was not granted to any other person before or since! Not even the prophets before him. He was the first Hashemite (from Hashemite parents) and the first who declared belief in the great messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and considered his message truthful. He was the first who allied himself with the Prophet and stuck to him closely for 34 years. The great Prophet described and declared his Imamate on many occasions:


The first situation.

When Allah Praise be to Him said,

"Notify [inform and warn] your tribe that is the nearest to you by relation".

The noble Prophet of Allah, Muhammad (saw) gathered the members of his tribe, Banu Hashem and called them to believe in his prophetic mission and in the Imamate of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, according to the text of the honorable verse that says;

[wa enther asheratica al akerabeen].


The second situation.

When Allah, The Most High, sent down His word,

That, surely, is your Allah and His messenger and those who believed in his message as in the text of the honorable verse which says; [ennama walieakum Allah wa rasooleh wa alletheena amenoo allatheena youqumoon alselaat wa youtoon al zakat wahum rakioon] .

The meaning of the verse is that they are your guardians, all those who perform prayer give alms [Zakat]  when they are bowing in prayer. By this situation, the guardianship or (wilayat) was confirmed for the one who gave while bowing, Imam ’Ali ibn abi Talib, may the blessing of Allah be upon him.


The third situation.

When He Allah, The Most High sent down His word, saying;

[femen hageke fiih m'n b'd maa gaeka men alilm fekul tealoo nedeuo abnaena wa abne'kum wa nisaena wa nisaekum wa anfusuna wa anfusikum thume nebetahel fenageal laenat Allah ala alkathibeen]. It means, those who disputation (argue) you about what we sent down to you of knowledge [science], say to them, come and we will call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, and we shall supplicate and make Allah's curse on the liars. All people agree that the Prophet, peace be upon him, went out holding with his hands al-Hansen and al-Hussein together with Fatima and ‘Ali [peace be upon them].


The fourth situation.

When His word came, praise be to Him, saying;

[ya ayuha alrasool balegh ma enzela elaik men rabek wa en lam tafel fema belaghtea risaletuh wa Allahu yasomuka mena alnas ena Allahe la yahdii alquom alkafireen], it means, O messenger, tell what was sent down to you from your Lord and unless you informed, then you did not inform all His message.

The noble messenger gathered his companions, Peace be upon him in the region of Al Ghadeer e Khum where he declared the Imamate of Imam Ali (as) and took the pledge of loyalty from the common people for Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as). The companions swore loyalty to Imam Ali (as) who was with the companions and the Prophet for the final pilgrimage which is called the Farewell Hajj.

The great Messenger of Allah addressed them, saying,

"If I am your master [lord], then this ‘Ali is your master, O Allah, be loyal to those who are loyal to ‘Ali and be an enemy to his enemies, give and grant victory to those who are supporters to ‘Ali's followers. Abandon those who abandon him".

The great Messenger never put Imam Ali (as) under the command of any other person. He accompanied the Prophet in most of the wars in his brigade. He took part in all the major campaigns except that of Tabuk where the noble Messenger, peace be upon him, appointed him Regent of al-Madina during the Prophet's absence. He said to Imam Ali (as),

"You are to me like Harun was to Moses except there is no prophet after me".

He is the rightful Imam after the Messenger, peace be upon him, indisputably and without doubt.

The Imam was obliged to give up authority for 25 years until 36 AH when he received the authority after others who merely reincarnated the authority and left this world.

The Imam, peace be upon him, spent much of the period of his just rule in fighting those who had broken solemn promises and become renegades who deviated from the righteousness. These wars include Al Jamal, Siffin , and Nahruwan.

Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, peace be upon him, was martyred when a man called ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Muljim al Muradi al-Kharji, he was schismatic, dissenter and heretic, (Allah's curse be upon him till doom's day) struck the honorable head of the Imam while he was praying to his Lord on the night of the 19th of Ramadan in 40 Hegira; his pure soul was carried into the sky on the 21st of the same month. He, peace be upon him, was buried in Najaf e Ashraf where his blessed shrine still stands today. When he was born inside the Holy Kaaba and when he was martyred in the prayer mihrab in Al Kufa he was carrying in his hand the banner of praise to lead the righteous and good people to paradise.


The Second Imam

He is Al-Mujataba al-Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Peace be upon Him, and he lived from 2nd to 50 AH. The father of his mother is the most honorable person who was born on earth,  The great Messenger of Allah Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah bin Abdul Mutalib ibn Hashem (peace be upon him).

His father is Imam Ali (as) and his mother is Fatima al Zahra, the mistress of all women in this world and the Hereafter, (peace be upon her). He was born in al-Madina on the night of Tuesday in the middle of the blessed month of Ramadan. The Noble Messenger, peace be upon him, named him Al Hassan by the order of the Dignified and Glorified Allah. He lived with his grandfather, the Prophet, peace be upon him, for 8 years and with his father, Imam Ali (as) for 27 years, until he received the authority on the 22nd of Ramadan 40 AH, upon the martyrdom of his father Imam Ali (as). He was obliged to contract a truce with Mu’awiya ibn Abu Suffian. Imam Hassan (as) became isolated and lived in privacy in Madina.

He was Martyred by poison, when his wife, "Juada bint al Ash’ath", was convinced by Mu’awiya ibn Abu Suffian that he wished his son Yazid will marry her. Such a marriage would have brought a fortune to her. That was on the 7th of Safar month in the year 50 AH. He was buried in the cemetery of Al Baqi beside his grandmother, Imam Ali (as) mother, Fatima bint Asad peace be upon her. His burial beside his grandfather, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was prevented. The Wahhabis (a sect in Saudi Arabia) destroyed his grave on the 8th day of Shawwal in 1334 AH. The duration of his Imamate was ten years.


The Third Imam

He is the Master of the Martyrs, Al Hussain ibn Ali, Peace be upon Him. He was born in 3rd AH. His father is the master of guardians, Imam Ali (as), the Prophet's brother as the prophet used to address him. His mother is Fatima bint Muhammad, (peace be upon her). He was born in Madina on the 3rd of Sha'ban, 4th AH. Allah's Messenger, named him Al Hussain by an order from Allah, Praise be to Him. He lived with his grandfather the Great Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, for 7 years and with his father, Imam Ali (as) for 36 years and with his brother, Imam Al Hassan (as), for 46 years. His Imamate was described and affirmed by the Great Messenger of Allah (saw) and his father Imam Ali (as). He took charge of the Imamate in the year 50 AH. He led a great revolution against the despotic rule of Banu Umaya. He was martyred, on the tenth of the holy month of Muharram al Haram in the year 61 AH in Holy city of Karbala where his holy shrine still stands today. Though 14 centuries have passed, still Imam Hussain ibn Ali (as),  represents and embodies the battle cry of right and justice against injustice and tyranny.

His Imamate lasted for ten years.


The Fourth Imam

He is Zain Al ‘Abideen Ali ibn Al Hussain, Peace be upon Him, He lived from 38-94 AH. His father is Al Hussain (as) who was known as Al Dhaim, which means he was always subject to injustice and was treated wrongly and he is the foremost of those people wronged and oppressed by tyrants. His mother is Shah-Zanan bint Yazdiger Shah-Riyar ibn Csra, the daughter of a Persian King. Imam Ali ibn al-Hussain was born in the Madina, although some reports say in Kufa on Friday or Sunday the fifth day of Sha'ban 38 AH. His mother died during or shortly after his honorable birth and he was raised in the house of his grandfather, Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), where he lived for 2 years and then with his uncle, al-Hassan ibn Ali (as), for 12 years. He lived with his father, Imam Hussain ibn Ali (as), for some 22 years and he saw the revolution of right, justice and dignity of his father in Karbala while lying on his sick bed. The echo of Al Hussain's revolution was being heard in Kufa and Damascus

He took charge of the Imamate upon the martyrdom of his father in the year 61 AH. He adopted the tactic of making requests to the tyrants as a means for spreading Islamic instructions and to fight injustice, wrong, and persecution. He was subject to various hinds of persecution and injustice. After that, al-Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik al-Marwan poisoned him. The Imam was martyred on the 25th of Muharram al-Haram, 94 AH. He was buried in al-Baqi, near his uncle Imam Hassan ibn Ali (peace be upon him). The duration of his Imamate was 33 years. His grave was also destroyed by the Wahhabis.


The Fifth Imam

He is Al Baqir Muhammad ibn Ali Peace be upon Him. He lived from 57-114 AH. His father is Al Imam Ali ibn Al Hussain (as) and his mother is lady Fatima bint Al Hassan ibn Ali (as). He was born in  Madina on Friday on the 1st Rajab, 57 AH. He is the first "Alawi" (descendant of Imam Ali (as)) to be born to two Alawi parents and he is also the first "Fatimid" (related to Fatima Al Zahra) born from two Fatimid parents. Imam Al Baqir is the first person who united the birthright of Al Hassan and Al Hussain (peace be upon them). He witnessed the tragedy of Karbala at the age of three years. He lived with his father, Imam Ali ibn Al Hussain (as), for 37 years.

It is related to the Holy Prophet of Allah Al Rasool Al A'dhem Muhammad Peace be upon him, by Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari (may Allah be satisfied with him) that there is a text about the Imamates of Al Baqir and his father Al Imam Ali ibn Al Hussain (peace be upon them).

He split open the religious and worldly sciences to reveal them to the people. For this reason The Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) had named him Al Baqir. A group of distinguished and outstanding jurisprudents and speakers graduated from his school until Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik al-Marwan had him martyred by poison on Monday, the seventh of dhul-hij-ja, 114 Hegira. He was buried in al-Baqi next to his grandfather and father. The duration of his Imamate was 20 years. His grave was also destroyed at the same time as those of his noble ancestors by the Wahhabis.


The Sixth Imam

He is Al-Sadiq, Ja'far ibn Muhammad, Peace be upon Him. He was born in 83 AH and passed away in 148 AH, and he is the son of al-Imam al-Baqir, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, peace be upon him, and his mother Farwat bint al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. His father was one of the famous jurisprudents in Medina. The Imam was born in Madina on Friday or Monday, the 17th of Rabi' al-Awwal. He lived with his father al-Imam al-Baqir Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, peace be upon them, for 31 years. He was designated an Imam by the Prophet, peace be with him, and by his father, peace be upon him. He took charge of the Imamate after the martyrdom of his father, peace be upon him, 114AH. He spread the sciences of his grandfather, the Prophet, peace be with him, to about 4000 sheikhs and jurisprudents or more who graduated from his councils and seminars together with many speakers and narrators of hadith. All the founders of the Islamic schools of thought, speakers, and the famous men of science relied on him.

It is narrated that more than 150 books were written by him or upon his direct teaching. Poison was given to the Imam on the orders of al-Mansur, the Abbasid ruler (by his Governor, Muhammad ibn Sulayman). He was martyred on Monday the 25th of Shawwal and buried near to his family in al-Baqi. The duration of his Imamate was 34 years; the Wahhabis also destroyed his grave on 8th Shawwal, 1344 Hegira.


The Seventh Imam

Al-Kadhim, Musa ibn Ja'far was born in 128 AH and passed away in 183 AH.

He is the son of Al-Imam Al-Sadiq, Ja'far ibn Muhammad, peace be upon him, and Hamida bint Sa'ad al Maghribi. He was born in al-Abwa (A place between Mecca and Al Madina) on Sunday the seventh of Safar. He lived with his father for 20 years. His Imamate was declared by his father al-Imam al-Sadiq, peace be upon them. He took charge of the Imamate in 148 AH. He spent long periods of his honorable life in the darkness of the prisons of the Abbaside state. The last prison for the Imam was that of al-Sindi ibn Shahek where he was martyred by poison on the orders of Caliph al-Rashid. This was on Friday on the 25th of Rajab. He was buried beside the graves of the Quraysh where his shrine stands. The period of his Imamate is 35 years.


The Eight Imam

He is Al-Ridah, ‘Ali ibn Musa, peace be upon him. and he is the son of Al-Imam Al-Kadhim, Musa ibn Ja'far, peace be with him. His mother is Um al Banin or Najma, and he was born on Thursday the 11th of dhul-hij-ja in the year 148 Hegira in al Madina. He lived with his father for (35) years. His Imamate was indicated by Al-Imam Al-Kadhim Musa ibn Ja'far (peace be upon him). He took charge after the martyrdom of his father in the years 183 Hegira. Al-Ma'mun, the Abbaside ruler, swore fealty and declared loyalty to him on the fifth of Ramadan in the years (201) Hegira. He became the heir apparent to the Caliph. His honorable name was struck on the Dirham and the dinars (gold coins) in order to appease the public opinion of the Alawi and to defuse the wrath and vengeance of popular revolutions against Abbaside rule. So the official office was a plot that the Imam, peace be upon him, was obliged to accept. He was martyred by poison in Toos in the region of Khurasan in Iran. Today this town is called Mashad. The duration of his Imamate is 20 years.


The Ninth Imam

He is Al-Jawad, Muhammad ibn ’Ali peace be upon him. He was born in 195 and died in 220 Hegira. His father is Al-Imam Al-Ridha, (Peace be upon him) and his mother is Sabika a Nubian from the household of "Um Al-Mu'minin Maryam the Coptic wife of the Prophet, peace be upon him." He was born in al Madina on the night of Friday the 19th of Ramadan in the year 195 Hegira. He lived with his father for eight years in al Madina. His Imamate was confirmed by al-Imam Al-Jawad (Peace be with him).

He took charge of Imamate after the martyrdom of his father, peace be with him, in the year 203 Hegira, at the age of only eight years.

Al-Mu'tasim made him leave al-Madina and move to Baghdad, on the Second of Muharram al Haraam 220 Hegira; and within a year he passed away. He was poisoned upon al-Mu'tasim's order by his wife (um al-fathel, abasian M'muon's daughter; on the last Wednesday in dhul-qadah 220H. He is buried near to his grandfather, Al-Imam Al-Kadhim in the Quraysh cemetery. His Imamate lasted for 17th years.


The Tenth Imam

He is Al-Imam Al-Hadi, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (254-212H), peace be with him, the son of Al-Imam Al-Jawad and the slave wife named Sumana al-Magribia. He was born in a state in Basra which belonged to Imam Al-Kathum, Musa bin Ja'far, peace be upon him, three miles away from al-Madina, in the month of dhul-hij-ja 212 Hegira and passed away in the month of Rajab 254 Hegira.

Al-Mutawakil the Caliph, brought him form al-Madina to Samara a place near Baghdad. The Imam settled down there under the authority of the Abbaside rule. He spent periods of his honorable life in their prisons. He was martyred by poison on the orders of the Caliph al-Mu'taz on Monday the 3rd of Rajab in 254 Hegira. He was buried in his house where his shrine still stands in the town of Samara. His Imamate lasted for 33 years.


The Eleventh Imam

He is Al-Askari, Al-Hassan ibn ‘Ali, peace be with him. He was born in 232 and passed away in 260 Hegira.

His father is Al-Imam Al-Hadi, Ali bin Muhammad, peace be with him, and his mother is Seleel, a Nubian. He was born in al-Madina, although it is also said he was born in Samara town, on Monday, 8th of in Rabi ’ul-Awwal  in 232 Hegira. He came to the town of Samara with his father, peace be with him, and remained there under the compulsion of the tyrants of his age. He was detained several times and placed in prison. He lived with his father for 22 years.

His Imamate (guardianship) was described and confirmed by Al-Imam Al-Hadi, peace be with him. He took charge of Imamate in the year 254 Hegira after the martyrdom of his father. He was poisoned on Friday on the 8th of Rabi ’ul-Awwal, 260AH. He was buried with his father, peace be with him, in the town of Samara. His Imamate lasted for 6 years.


The Twelfth Imam

He is Al-Muntadhar, Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan, May Allah accelerate him bringing relief.

He was born in 255 Hegira, and he is still alive by Allah's wish, praise be to Him.

His father is Al-Imam Al-Askari, peace be with him, and his mother is Narjis the daughter of Youshabin the Emperor of Rome. His mother is from the sons of the Apostles of Jesus Christ (peace be with him). He was born on the night of the 15th of Sha'ban in the town of Samara. He lived with his father for five years.

The Prophet (saw) described his Imamate in well known statements. His right was confirmed by Al-Imam al-Askari, peace be with him. He took charge of the Imamate in the year 260 Hegira when his age was five years. The oppressive controls of the Abbasid, al– Mu'tamed increased around the time of the martyrdom of his father, peace be with him, and according with Allah's wisdom and wish, the Imam disappeared from sight. He became absent by Allah's will.


1. The Minor Absence (Al Ghaibah Sughra):

It began in 260 and continued until the year 329 Hegira. Al-Imam Al-Muntadhar, peace be with him, had four deputies to transmit His messages between him and his Shia (followers).


They are as follows:

1. Abu Umar Othman ibn Sa’id al-Umari. He died in 280 Hegira.

2. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn ‘Othman al-Umari. He died in 304 Hegira.

3. Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti. He died in year 326 Hegira.

4. Abu al-Hassan‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Semari. He died in the year 329 Hegira.

The residence of these ambassadors, Allah's mercy be upon them, was in Baghdad and they all died in Baghdad. Their graves are a sight known and visited by many people.

2. The Major Absence (Al Ghaibah Kubra):

This began in the year 329 Hegira until when Allah Almighty wants his appearance, only Allah Almighty knows the time of his appearance.

After the death of the fourth ambassador, Abu al-Hassan‘Ali ben Muhammad al-Semari, may Allahs mercy be upon him; the major absence (al Ghaibah Kubra) began and the Imam will remain out of sight until his reappearance, by Allah, The Most High's permission, to allow the Imam to go out in order to fight wrong, as it was narrated in the Hadith al-Sharif which is accepted by all. Some of it includes this report "Even though one day remains of this world. Allah will prolong that day until Imam Al-Mahdi of Muhammad's household ends his concealment."


The Fifth Principle Qayamaat belief in Doomsday

We must believe that Allah, praise be to Him,  will terminate this world at a certain time, only known by Allah praise be to him, then He will resurrect people to life again and then He will examine their deeds.

He will reward every one according to their actions bad or good. If the deeds are good, He will compensate the doer by making him live in paradise. If the deed is bad, He will punish him in hell which was prepared for the unbelievers, hypocrites, dissenters and disobedient. Also we must believe in the following matters that the truthful, Al Rasool (peace be upon him) told us, These are:


1. The Torture of the Grave;

Allah, The Most High, will examine and try the human being after his death in the next world it is called the world of Barzakh . They say it is a Line between two  seas, but the real meaning in "Al Quran" is the time which is between death and resurrection.

He will be tortured in the grave, if he is deserving or he will live in comfort and be surrounded with blessings and graces, if he is obedient to Allah.


2. The Pathway (Al Siraat)

It is a bridge which extends from the place of doom's day to paradise. Nobody can pass through that narrow bridge which is said to be as sharp as a sword and as thin as a single piece of hair except those who have accumulated good deeds for the sake of Allah Almighty and they must not deserve any of the torture in hellfire.


3. Scales and Accounts

This means that Allah, the Most High, examines and prosecutes by weighing the good and bad deeds of a person.


4. Intercession (Shafa’a)

It is proved that Allah, the Most High, grants the qualifications for intercession to the loyal people of His mankind; to prophets, messengers, Imams and Al-Zahra (peace be with them all) and other good righteous people. The intercessors include the great amongst the believers. We hope that Allah, praise be to Him, will grant us Al Rasool Al A’dhem's intercession and that of his family (may the blessing of Allah be upon them all).


The Branches of Religion

They are a total of 10 branches in religion which are known as Furoo e Deen.

Worshipping (Namaaz)

Fasting (Saum)

Pilgrimage (Hajj)

Alms (Zakaat)

Khums (taking 1/5 of the wealth and money as alms)

Jihaad (to struggle and fight in the way of Allah, praise be to Him it is also referred to as a holy and religious trial)

Amar bil Maroof (to do good deeds and talk good and tell good things to people)

Nahi anil Munkar (to stay away from bad deeds and stop others from doing the same, and prohibit abominations)

Tawalla (to love and adhere, be loyal to the prophet Muhammad and his pure Household (Ahlul Bayt) and there friends (peace be upon them All))

Tabarra (to hate and show hatred towards the enemies' of Islam and towards the prophet Muhammad and his Pure Household (Ahlul Bayt) and there friends (peace be upon them all))


Applying the Branches of Religion

There must be a reliable way of knowing all these rules and these must be agreed upon.

1. Diligence and Ijtihad (assiduous):

This means to be capable of doing the best or utmost to formulate the rules, opinions dicta [legal opinions], Fatawa from legal proofs so that the jurisprudent can give his rulings. Diligence and assiduity can be divided into two parts:

a. The Absolute Diligence: This means that the jurisprudent is able and efficient in preparing the ideas, opinions, Fatawa that concern the affairs of the all Muslims.

b. The Partial Diligence: in this kind of Ijtihad, it is not possible for the jurisprudent to easily extract the rules for all affairs. Sometimes people are afflicted by many things that need solutions. Sometimes it is only possible for him to derive a partial ruling on a matter.

2- Ijtihad Sentences; In the Rules of Ijtihad it is allowed for the jurisprudent of the higher degree to apply his own Fatawa for himself and others. The jurisprudent of the partial category may act upon his rulings himself and in both cases. They may not apply the Fatawa of another. They cannot exchange Fatawa between them. Every one of them has his own.


The Legist who may be followed. [Mujtahid al-Taqlid]

He is one who has general guardianship over the Muslims. He is obliged to manage the affairs of Muslims and he has the authority to issue Fatawa and to explain the legal rules.


The conditions for the Legist whose rulings are followed

He must be an adult, proficient in Ijtihad, and a just male which means he holds firmness in the Islamic doctrine within himself in a way that shows piety secretly and publicly, he must be of good and legitimate birth. He must believe in Islam and in the twelve Imams who are infallible of mistakes, peace be with them. He must have intelligence and be sane and rational.


The Sentences for the Partial Mujtahid

1. The legist that does not fulfill all of the above conditions may not be followed nor his Fatawa sought nor acted upon.

2. Precaution: Is a ruling from a Mujtahid that ensures actions are within the bounds of obeying the Divine Will when explicit proof is lacking

3. Imitation [following]: It means that the believer imitates and follows the legal decisions of the jurisprudent. The person who follows should imitate and follow the most learned. We can define the measure of knowledge and acquaintance as follows: The evidence of two just persons who have knowledge. The person who gives rulings to others should be known to have experience and have attained the degree of diligence to give decisions correctly or come near to diligence at least. He should be known to have a wide and deep knowledge in many matters. He should be known among the specialists of jurisprudence and that he is the most learned. It is not allowed to commence to imitate or follow dead persons nor continue to follow them after their death.


Imposition [charging with a duty]:

It means that Allah, praise be to Him, when he distinguished human beings from other creatures and favored them with a mind and the ability to differentiate between truth and falsehood and between what is useful and useless placed obligations upon man. Allah granted us the capability to choose for good or bad. The High, sublime wisdom required that human being should not left without purpose.

He bestowed the blessing of legislation. He placed for him the laws and restrictions to define the relationship between the creator, human beings and other creatures. As these legislations and laws restrict and stop desires and oblige the person to oppose inclination to lust they were called" The Divine impositions."

To be subject to the Imposition a person must fulfill certain conditions: They are sanity, reasonable, intellect, maturity, the ability to comply with the imposition, knowing the rules, acuity (that the person who is inattentive is pardoned (forgiven)) as in the case of prayers where sleepiness or faintness allow the person to delay the prayers from the fixed time to later.


The Parts of Imposition

First: Obligation (duty) this is divided into:

Obligation to act for the sake of Allah: This kind of duty is to do a deed for the sake of Allah only such as: Prayers or Fasting.

The obligation which is necessary, not for the sake of Allah The Most High, but can be done with any intention such as: cleaning clothes or washing the body.

Second: The Commendable (Approvable) Kind:

This kind includes the deeds that The Lord, The great, recommends us to do without obligation. We can do them or we can leave them. If a person did them, he would be rewarded, and if he left them we would not be punished. This is also formed of: For worshipping; such as:

1- Worshiping Allah thru praiseworthy prayer and fasting.

2- Create social relationships, thru marriage and spending money generously on family.

Third: Prohibition (forbidden)

This includes the thing that the sacred legislator obliges us not to do and there are punishments if we do them.

Fourth: The Hateful Things:

These kinds include the things that the sacred legislator dislikes, and he does not oblige us to omit but avoiding them is rewarded.


Intention: Its Meaning and Rule

This means that you have the intention in the heart to do a deed for a purpose i.e., rapprochement Allah. It is prior awareness of the heart and verbalization is not required.


It’s Rule:

It is a condition in itself for any act of worship. So, without intention, worship is invalid whether that action is obligatory or commendable. In prayer, it is not allowed to vocalize the intention, though it is allowed for other deeds.