The Book of Purity

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The word ‘purify’ in the terminology of jurisprudents means two things:

A- To remove the physical impurities, noxiousness and scum from certain things, without a specific intention, so that they are clean.

B- To nullify certain specific occurrences (Hadath), and these are divided into two parts and both require specific intention:

The minor Hadath that we can nullify by ablution but the major Hadath, which is only purified by ritual bathing.

These are detailed below.


The Types of Water:

Pure Water: it is the liquid that we know simply as water. It is that substance which is available in wells, rivers and the water that comes down form the clouds as rain.

Mixed Water: It is any liquid formed by pure water and another substance such that the water differs from its original condition such as: gravy, broths, drinks and also fruit juices…etc. Pure water and mixed water are clean legally, unless it is known that some impurity or dirt is connected with them.

The pure water has 2 types:


1. The little water:

This is water of a volume less than one Kurr .


It’s Rules:

a. It is pure and clean if there is no impurity connected with it.

b. It becomes impure by contact with impurity.

c. It purifies if it is clean from any dirt, scum and Hadath and it is valid for performing the ablution.

d. If any part of the little water is connected to an impurity, then the whole of that water will be impure and thus if an impure person touches that water, then the whole of that water becomes impure too.

e. If the little water is poured with force onto an impurity, say from a vessel, then only that part of the water that has been in contact with the impurity becomes impure and the water that remains in the vessel, on matter how small, remains pure.


2. Abundant water (Kurr):

It is an amount of water greater than 393 Kilograms in weight or a volume of 43 cubic hand-spans where one span is equal to nine inches.


The Types of Abundant Water:

a. Still water in pools and vessels.

b. Water flowing in rivers, streams and pipes supplying houses.

c. The water of wells and springs whose water flows form the ground.

d. Rainwater, even a small volume, while it is raining.


It’s Rules:

1. It is pure and clean, unless it is physically changed by dirt and impurity.

2. It purifies Hadath and filth from and everything which can be purified.

3. There is no difference between the application of rules for abundant water that is still where that water is collected together in one place or in several places provided that these places are connected and not separated.

4. Abundant water purifies little impurity water, if the first is mixed with the second.

5- If abundant water is changed by impurity, then it is impure too. Here" change" means that the effect of impurity will appear in its color, taste or smell. We should purify it by:

a. Removing the cause of the change and allowing the water to return to its normal condition.

b. Connect the changed water to a supply of abundant water so that the change is washed away. Or can be pure when the cause of that impurity removed, before such connection.

6- It is enough to wash once with abundant water for purification except the dog's saliva where we should purify the vessel by washing several times even with abundant water.

7- Rainwater, in puddles and vessels, does not become impure while the rain is falling unless it is changed in its color, taste or smell by an impurity.


The Rules of the Toilet :

1. The genitals must be covered from any onlooker. What is meant by" genitals" is the penis, testicles and anus.

2. As a precaution, veiling the area between the penis and the anus and the hair of the genitals or pubic region and the hair at the sides of the pubes is advised.

The body of the woman is all to be veiled from any onlooker who is aware of sexual differences except the husband.

3. It is prohibited for the person who eases himself to face the Qibla (towards Kaaba) or to have his back towards it. There is no difference if the place W.C. is covered or walled or uncovered and open.

4. The anus must be purified [cleaned] from faeces, after removing the traces of impurity, by washing with water once, but twice is better, as for urine the penis is washed once with abundant water and twice when the water is little.

5. The water of slops is impure. Slops mean the dirty water after washing an impure substance. The surplus water after washing and the remaining moisture, if it has no signs of impurity, is pure after disconnection from the slops.


The Ablution

What negates it?

There are six things which negate the ablution:

1. Urination.

2. Defecation.

3. Sleeping and similar conditions such as: madness, fainting, drunkenness and the affects of anesthetic that remove consciousness or sense.

4. Breaking wind from the anus only, but wind from other places will not negate the ablution.

5. Menstruation from its usual place.

6. Ablution can be invalidated by the ejaculation of semen, whether voluntary or not and by sexual intercourse, or by any other activities which result for ritual washing for purification.


Some Rules of Doubt and Defect [Flaw]:

1- If a person was confident in the validity of his ablution, then after that he doubted that his ablution was valid, then in this case, his ablution is valid based on purity and correctness.

2- If a person knows that he performed the rite of ablution, and also performed an act of negation, but he does not know which happened first. In this case, he must consider himself in need of purification and perform a new ablution that requires purity.

3- If a person ended his prayer and then doubted his ablution, he should consider his prayer valid, but if he wants to pray another prayer, he should perform the rite of ablution again for this prayer.


The Conditions and Duties of Ablution

Ablution is an act of worship like any other worship, but ablution is also obligatory when the prayer depends on it. Since the prayer is a duty, that is incomplete without purity. Every part is important to the other.


The Conditions of Ablution water

They are three:

a. The water of the ablution must be pure without addition of another liquid.

b. It must be ritually pure.

c. It must be permitted for use by its owner or for any one as a public supply and not restricted to use by a particular person or group. It must not be usurped or taken by force.


The Conditions of the Person who Performs Ablution

a. The organs, those parts to be purified, of ablution should be clean and free from substances that are impervious to water.

b. They must be Muslim and prefer to possess belief.

c. The health of the person who performs the ablution should be such that they will not be hurt or caused pain by washing or rubbing.

d. The Intention: It means that the ablution ought to be performed with a desire or wish for Allah's, praise be to Him, satisfaction and for the sake of Allah, pleasing Him to get His compensation and to avoid His punishment. The intention must be continual from the start until the end of the deeds of ablution when rubbing and wiping the left foot.


Matters that should be considered during Ablution:

a. A person must take charge of his own ablution and perform all of its acts.

b. The sequence of the acts of ablution must be followed.

c. The acts should be continuous without gaps between them.


The Duties and Acts of Ablution

a. Washing the face by causing water to flow on it from the forehead to the end of the chin lengthways and for a width from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the outstretched middle finger middle finger. Washing must be from the upper area to the lower. Water should reach the skin where it can be seen or is free from thick hair. As for the thick hair of the beard that we cannot see the skin through, washing the apparent hair only suffices.

b. Washing the two hands. We must begin washing the right hand before the left. It is not enough to wash them together. It is required in washing the hand that we begin from the elbow and end at the tip of the fingers. We must make sure of the water reaching the cuticle. Washing is not only moistening the required place, but to water must flow or be drawn over it by hand from one place to another.

c. Wiping the head by passing the right hand over it. Rubbing must be with the right hand either with the fingers or with the palm. On precaution the rubbing must be with the palm side of the hand. Rubbing must be on the front part of the head as a precaution and it is better to be on the forelock. Wiping can be from the upper to the lower or vice versa. The best is from the upper part to the lower namely it begins from the top of the head to the end of the hair of the head. This wipe is performed with the wetness which remains on the right hand and it is not permitted to use new water nor to add new water to the remaining moisture of the hand.

d. Wiping the two feet with the palms of the hand on the upper part of the foot to the anklebone joint that separates the foot from the leg. First the right foot with the right hand and then the left foot with the left hand in the same way.


The Ablution of Splints and Bandages

If there is a splint on the members or limbs of the person and he can lift that dressing and remove the medicine to wash the skin without harm and without pain he must do so, but if is difficult to remove the bandage and the water can be poured under it to the skin covered by the lower part of the bandage without harm or pain, then that will be sufficient.

If the bandage is on the place of rubbing and we can insert a finger to that place, then we must rub with that finger. If we can remove the bandage from the place of the wound on the parts of ablution, but that area is impure with blood and medicine and washing is harmful, then, we must abandon the wet ablution and perform Tayammum (Ceremony of ablution performed with sand instead of water) with dust on the hands. If the wound is within the parts wetted for the ablution and it is difficult to remove the bandage, and we can not convey the water to that skin and the medicine cannot be removed, then, we must wash round the wound or bandage and wipe the dressing with a damp hand.


The Matters that Require Ablution by Obligation

We must perform ablution for these matters:

a. The obligatory prayer and its appendices such as: precautionary prayers and performing forgotten parts.

b. Performing lapsed prayers for oneself or others.

c. The prayer of circumambulation in Hajj and Umra (visiting Kaaba in any time).

d. Ablution is a duty in the case of fulfilling vows to do so.

e. Touching the writing of The Holy Quran.


The Ritual Bath

This means that we convey water to the skin of all the parts of the body without exception: This washing is either obligatory or recommended.

The Obligatory Bathing has six cases:

a. Washing of the dead person.

b. Washing after sexual intercourse or ejaculation.

c. Washing after menstruation.

d. Washing after accouchement.

e. Washing after menstruation, if it is happened in irregular time.

f. washing after touching the dead person.


Washing during Istihadha, irregular bleeding and discharge of a woman of childbearing age. If many causes exist at one time for ritual bathing such as: after sexual intercourse, and touching a dead person…etc. If the person bathes with the intention of after sexual intercourse then the other impurities are also negated. If he makes the intention for other than this then the bathing will only apply to that cause and no other. There is no need to perform a separate ablution for prayers, if a person performed the washing after ejaculation or intercourse.


The Conditions of Bathing:

They are the same as those mentioned earlier for ablution except for the condition of continuity in the sequence of bathing. If he washed the head and the neck, and then after a long period he washed the rest of his body, in this case his bath is valid.


How to Bathe

There are two methods of bathing:

1. Sequential: That means we wash the head and the neck first by pouring water onto them in a way to reach and cover the skin and hair, then we wash all of the body by pouring water over it. It is better to wash the right side before the left. We must wash the hair of the head whether it is long or short and all bodily hair.

2. Immersion: It means that a person immerses his body into water all at once in a way to make the water reach all parts of his body.


If there is a Bandage on the Body:

The rule for bathing while wearing bandages is the same rule that is applied to the ablution except for the bathing of a dead person. If there is a wound or ulceration that is uncovered, we should wash it, but if the wound must remain covered then wash round the wound and wipe the dressing. If there is a fracture not covered with a bandage and water hurts it, then in this case, we must perform Tayammum.


Janabaa (major ritual impurity) and its Rules


The Reasons:

There are two reasons for this condition:


1. The ejaculation of semen [sperm].

2. Sexual intercourse which takes place by inserting the glands of the penis into the vagina of a woman or of a hermaphrodite or into the anus of a man or woman or the vulva of an animal.


The washing after sexual activity is an act of worship and a prerequisite to some other acts of worship.


The Bathing After Sexual Activity is a condition for:

a. For the obligatory and commendable prayers.

b. Fast

c. Circumambulation.

d. It is also a condition for the compulsory and commendable living even in private.


There are Many Prohibitions for the Person in major ritual impurity:

a. Touching the Holy Quran's writing and Allah's name, praise be to Him, and on precaution any other good names for Him.

b. The reading of the four chapters (sura) .

c. Entering the Holy Mosque in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in al-Medina. It is also prohibited to wait in or pass through them.

d. Sitting down in a mosque but it is allowed to pass through them.

e. Entering the holy shrines and sites of the Imams, Peace be with them, but the prohibition is restricted to their honorable graves.


Rules of Menstruating Women

The blood of the menses often is black or red [hot, fresh immature]. It has influx and burning. Sometimes it loses its qualities.


How to distinguish it:


There are many ways:

1- The blood of the periods does not occur until the woman reaches the age of nine lunar years.

2- The blood of the menses does not occur after the woman reaches the female climacteric, but in the "Quraishi" woman this is after 60 years and in other women is in 50 years.

3- The duration of menses is not less than three days successively, namely three days and between them two nights.

4- The duration of the bleeding in menstruation is for not more than ten days.

5- The least period between the two menses is ten days.

6- The blood must leave the body and appear out side it. In this case, the movement of the blood from the womb to the vagina is not enough for it to be proven as the blood of menses.


The Rules of Menstruation

The arrival of menstrual blood requires cancelling the prayer for the menstruating woman and delaying fasting. Every act of obligatory worship is stopped because of the impurity [Hadath] until the end of the menses. It is not sufficient for the validity of prayer to just finish the monthly period but there must be a ritual bath for purification.


The Rules of Menstruating Women

It is prohibited for a menstruating woman like who had sexual activities, to enter the Holy Mosque in Mecca [Al-Masjid al-Haram] and the Prophet's mosque, or stay in other mosques, or to touch the Quran's writing and others. It is also not allowed to practice sexual intercourse with her husband either in the vulva or anus while bleeding continues. Also it is not allowed to divorce the woman while menstruating except in some cases .


The Blood of "Istihadha":

It is the blood that the woman sees on days other than those of the monthly menses. It is not because of a wound, ulceration, or menses or childbirth. Often its color is yellow, cold and soft. She could see it before her maturity or after it and during her menopause. All these cases are called "Istihadha".


The types and the Rules of "Istihadha":

Istihadha has three categories dependent on the amount of bleeding. They are:

a. The Little Amount: In this case the flow of blood is little and it may stain a piece of cloth laid in the vulva but the blood will not penetrate through the cloth. The rule is, in this case, to change that cloth before prayer, wash the private parts and perform an ablution for every prayer.

b. The Middle Amount: In this sort the flow of blood is medium and it penetrates the piece of cloth, but it does not flow through to the other side. The rule, in this case, is like that of the little "Istihadha" plus performing a ritual bath every day before the prayer of dawn. This bathing is not enough to replace the ablution and this must be performed before each prayer.

c. The Large Amount: In this kind, the blood is so much that it penetrates the cloth and flows through it. Its rule is like the little amount but with a ritual bath before the dawn prayer and another one before the noon and afternoon prayers and again before the dusk and evening prayers. Between the prayers of each group only an ablution is performed. After bathing the prayers should be commenced without delay .


The Blood of Accouchement and its Rules

Accouchement: It is the bleeding that occurs in the woman during birth, and she may see that blood for ten days. The woman should be tranquil that the bleeding is for the sake of birth.


The characteristics of accouchement blood:

1. This bleeding begins directly after the birth, so the blood of labor before birth is not the blood of accouchement.

2. There is no minimum time for accouchement. As for the maximum time can be ascertained from her menstrual periods, but upon two conditions:

a. She must be regular in the length of her menses.

b. The bleeding must not exceed the number of days for her menstruation and if it exceeds the ten days and then stops, then the total is accouchement, if it continues after the ten days, the surplus blood [more than the days of menses] will be "Istihadha". So the woman should be careful about the difference between the monthly periods and the "tenth day". In other words she should give up the prohibitions concerning the confined woman, and must perform the duties of the woman in the condition of Istihadha.

Accouchement women like menstruation follow the same sentences.

3. Accouchement is ten days from the time of birth with bleeding occurring in them. If blood does not occur during all the ten days, then there is no accouchement for her. If blood occurs in some of them, suppose on the fourth day or the fifth day from birth, then that will be the beginning of her accouchement, and it ends on the tenth day and after the ten days, and in case is go on then it is Istihadha.

4. If the woman saw the blood immediately after birth without any pause, and then the bleeding stopped for one day or more, and then starts again before the tenth day, then there are two interpretations:


The first: The second bleeding should not continue after the tenth day from the first day of bleeding after the birth. The days on which blood is seen and the days between them will all be treated as accouchement. Here we should treat this case as two operations; accouchement and menstruation.


The Second: If the second blood exceeded the tenth day from birth:

a. If she possesses regular periods and it happened that the second blood was during the days of her menses, in this case, the first blood is considered to be of her accouchement and the period without bleeding, if it was short, is attached to the accouchement and the bleeding in excess of the days of menses, is considered Istihadha.

b. If the woman has regular periods and saw the blood for a period of time after birth, then the bleeding stopped until after the time when her period would have ended then later, bleeding started again and continued after the tenth day from birth. Then the first blood is accouchement and the second blood is Istihadha and the period between them is a period of purity and cleanliness.

c. If the woman has irregular periods and bleeding started after the birth and then it stopped for a time before commencing again before the passing the ten days and before the end of the days usual for her relatives periods, then bleeding continues after the tenth day, then the accouchement finishes in accord with the habit of her relatives. If the habit of her relatives is less than ten days then she must act on precaution from that time until the tenth day.

d. If the woman has no habit for menses and the bleeding started after birth. Then stopped and after a period of purity, she saw blood again after the passing the days of her relatives menses days, and bleeding continued until it exceeded the tenth day after the birth, in this case accouchement is the blood she saw first and the period without bleeding is pure but she must act on precautions for the days of the second blood until the tenth day and after it by combining the rules of menses and Istihadha.


The Rules of Accouchement and the Confined:

1- The bleeding of accouchement is as great as Hadath as the blood of menses and requires a ritual bath.

2- Prayer is not allowed with the existence of there kinds of blood; menses, accouchement and Istihadha, on the clothes or the body.

3- The things that are prohibited to be confined are the same rules for a woman on menstruate.

4- If it happens that her accouchement is in the month of Ramadan, then she delays fasting until later but the praying.

5- She bathes for accouchement in the same way as for menses and Istihadha.


The Rules for the Dead and Dying

The Rules of Dying:

The dying person is the person who is about to die. The expiring of his soul has rapprochement and he will leave this world for the next world. In the case of the dying person, we must follow:

a. We must turn the person towards the Qibla by making him lie on his back with the soles of the feet towards it. This is the duty of the guardian of the dying person, if the dying person is unable to do this by himself.

b. We must dictate to the expiring person the two testimonies and acknowledging the Prophet, peace be upon him, and the Imams, and all the basic beliefs of Islam.


How to Wash the Dying Person and Its Rules:

A- The dead person is washed three times:

1- Water mixed with a little Christ's thorn [ Nabk Tree or Lote ].

2- Water mixed with camphor.

3- Water without any mixture or additive.

B- If the person died and was in Ihram (hajj) and we know that the person who is in Ihram is not allowed to use perfumes so this dead person is not washed with camphor, but with the Nabk water and pure water.

C- We must wash the dead body three times according to this sequence: first water with Nabk, secondly water with camphor and thirdly with pure water.

D- We must follow the arrangement in washing the members of the body too: We wash the head and the neck, then the right half of the body and the left.

E- We must remove any impurity from the body of the dead person before washing and also remove the obstacles that prevent the water from running on the body, clothes bandages…etc.

F- We must make sure that the water will reach the body [all the parts of the body] even by massage.

G- We can wash the dead man by immersion as mentioned in the types of bathing.



The Conditions Of What We Wash With and On:

a. Water must be freely and legally obtained and allowed for all lawful uses.

b. The purity of Nabk [lote] and camphor and the purity of the place and the board on which they put the dead man for washing must be ensured.

c. Every thing used must be legally obtained including all the tools used in washing or be public things for use by anyone.



The Conditions for the Person Performing the Wash:

a. Mature.

b. Sane.

c. He must be Muslim.

d. Pious.

e. Of the same gender as the deceased.

f. The guardian of the dead man must have the preference in being allowed to wash the dead man according to the will of the dead man.



We mean by embalming that we rub camphor on the seven places of prostration after finishing the three stages of washing.


The duties of shrouding for the Grave:

The dead man should be shrouded [dressed for the grave] after washing and embalming with three garments:

a. Apron or kilt wrapped round the dead man extending from the navel to knee.

b. The shirt to wrap and cover the body. It should cover from the two shoulders to the middle of the legs.

c. Shroud: a large piece of cloth or something like it to cover the body of the dead man completely. It should be long enough to tie at both ends and wide enough to wrap around the body of the deceased without any gaps.


The Conditions of the Shroud

1- It should be legally obtained.

2- Pure and clean.

3- It may not be made of animal skin.

4- It should not be made of pure silk or woven gold.


The Prayer for the Dead Person:

When we became free from washing, embalming and shrouding the dead person, then the prayer should be performed. The prayer is a duty on all men but its performance by some acquits all of it. It is an obligation for a Muslim unless he is an atheist or unbeliever namely he is convicted of disbelief or atheism.


The Person Who May Read the Prayer:

a. He should be Muslim .

b. Be pious .

c. The prayer should be read by the guardian of the dead man, or a person appointed by him.

d. It is not a condition that the reader should be mature. A youth who is capable, can pray on the dead person and if the validity of his prayer is recognized by the people.

e. A woman can pray for a dead man and vice versa. The prayer is also valid if prayed by a group. Before the prayer, there are matters that should be considered:


The Preconditions of Prayer for the Deceased.

They are as follow:

a. The deceased should lie on their back.

b. The head of the deceased should point to the right side of the prayer room.

c. The Imam should stand facing the deceased at a point near to the middle of a dead man and level with the chest in the case of a woman.

d. The presence of the dead man is an obligation, and the prayer on an absent dead man is invalid.

e. There must not be any barrier between the dead man and those praying.

f. The prayer should be performed standing and towards the Qibla.

g. The Imam should not be higher than the dead person, nor vice versa.

h. The Imam must name the deceased person being prayed for.

I. The intention should be one of nearness to Allah [swt].

k. The performance of the prayer must be correct and continuous.


The Form of the Prayer:

As a precaution the prayer should be in this form:

A. Allah is great [Allahu Akbar]: I testify that is no god other then Allah alone, He has no partner. I also testify that Muhammad is His messenger. He sent him with guidance and the religion of right to reveal it even though the polytheists hated that.

B. Allah is Great [Allahu Akbar]: O Allah; blessings upon Muhammad and his household and be merciful on them all, as you blessed and were merciful upon Abraham and his household. You are the Most Praiseworthy and Glorified.

C. Allah is great: O Allah; forgive the believing men and women. Those who are alive and those who are dead, and grant us and them goodness.

D. Allah is Great; O Allah; this man who is silent and covered with cloth before us is Your slave and he is the son of your slave and the son of your slave woman sent from You and You are his best abode. O Allah, we do not know anything about him except goodness and You are more aware of him than us, O Allah, if he was benevolent increase his goodness and if he was bad and evil forgive him and gather him with Muhammad and his household peace be upon them, in a group of righteous mankind.

E. Allah is Great; [Supplications are offered]

This ends the prayer. We must adjust the wording, to suit the gender of the deceased, after the fourth Allahu Akbar.


Recommendations for the Prayer:

a. The performance of the prayer must be pure and clean.

b. To raise the hands for every "Takbir" [saying Allahu Akbar].

c. To raise his voice in "Takir" and "Entreaty".

d. The prayer behind the Imam must never raise his voice when he try to mentioned prayers.


The Burial:

The deceased (adult or not) should be buried in such a manner that the people are not aware of its corruption. The primary responsibility for this is with the guardian of the deceased.

As a precaution, the knot of the shroud should be untied and a pillow of earth should be made and the deceased should be laid on their right side, facing Qibla, with their right cheek on the pillow.


General Matters:

a. It is not allowed to bury someone in usurped.

b. It is not allowed to bury a Muslim in the graveyard of atheists nor to bury the atheist in the cemeteries of Muslims.

c. It is not allowed to excavate or dig up a grave.


Bathing after Touching the Deceased:

We must bathe if we touch the body of a dead person that has become cold, but not if the dead person's bathing has been completed, or his body still warm.


Some Rules Concerning Touching a Dead Person.

a. If a person touched a dead man, then he is not allowed to touch the writing of the "Holy Quran" nor the name of Allah, The Most High.

b. The rules for a person required to bathe after sexual activity will not apply to the person who has touched a dead person, as a result of that, the person can enter mosques, read the Quran and even those verses that require kneeling if it read.

c. We bathe once only even if we touch the dead man several times before his bathing was complete but we must repeat our bathing if we touch the dead man again before his washing is complete. That means when we became pure from the touching and then touch again during washing we must wash again.

d. It is not a condition that moisture must be present when we touch a dead person for bathing to become an obligation.

e. The method of bathing is the same as for other causes.

f. Bathing for touching a dead person does not suffice for an ablution to perform prayers.


Al-Tayammum (using soil as a substitute of water for ablution or washing)

It takes the place of ablution or washing when we are unable to perform them with water. It is sometimes called "The dusty purity".


The Reason that allow Tayammum:

1. If water is unavailable or getting water causes hardship that we cannot endure such as the water is too far away or water can only be purchased and we do not have enough money or water is near but getting it is dangerous, or reaching the water results in committing a crime and so on. In the case of losing or not knowing where water is we must look for it if we have time, but if we only have time to pray a prayer in its time then we should perform Tayammum.

2. If it is difficult to use water because of certain conditions such as:

a. The time is limited for praying in time and if bathing or an ablution is performed the time would expire for the obligatory act.

b. If the use of water is harmful to may cause illness or worsen an existing illness.

c. If it is cold or the water is too cold to use.

d. If the only pure water is only sufficient for drinking and no other supply is available.

e. If there is an impurity on the body or clothing of the person wishing to pray that requires washing, and they have no other clothes and there is only enough water to wash away the impurity or perform an ablution or bath then the impurity should be removed and Tayammum performed.


The Conditions of Tayammum:

A¬ The soil used and access to it must be lawfully obtained.

B The soil, dust or object used to perform Tayammum with must be free from impurities.

C It is invalid to perform Tayammum unless the dust is considered as part of the earth and is not a product of the earth. For example, it is invalid to use bricks or paved ground. It is permissible to perform Tayammum with gypsum and lime before burning.

D The substance used for Tayammum must be recognizable in size and quality as dust.

F It is not allowed to perform Tayammum with metals.

G It is invalid to perform Tayammum with wood, ash, glass and powdered bricks.

H If you can get dust to make Tayammum, then it is not allowed to use mud, but if dust is not available, then you are obliged to use mud legally.

I The intention is the same as for ablution or bathing. It is not meant that Tayammum is an alternative for ablution and bathing without cause.

K As a precaution the purity of the members of Tayammum and that includes the brow, the nose and the upper sides of the hands from the forearm to the finger should be assured.

L There must be no obstacle between the hand that performs the wiping and the part upon which it wipes.


How to perform Tayammum:

1- We strike the palms of the two hands simultaneously on a substance permitted for Tayammum. We must hit upon dust and shake off loose dust from the two hands.

2- The two hands must then be used to wipe the forehead and the eyebrows from the center of the forehead and on precaution this should be to the outer tips of the eyebrows and include the bridge of the nose.

3- The whole of the upper part of the right hand should then be wiped with the palm of the left hand and likewise the left hand should be wiped by the palm of the right.


The Duties for Tayammum:

a. Correct and valid performance.

b. Continuity.

c. Correct sequence of acts.


Tayammum on Bandages:

If there is a bandage on the brow or the two hands, it is better to remove it, as much as possible, if it dose not cause hardship and to rub the skin directly. If it is hard to remove the bandage and that cause's pain or harm, then it is sufficient to rub on the bandage itself.


Things That Cancel Tayammum

As Tayammum is an alternative for ablution, then the same things that negate the ablution, will negate Tayammum too. Besides that getting water easily, will negate Tayammum. As we said Tayammum is an alternative for ritual bathing and will be negated by the factors that make bathing or ablution obligatory. Tayammum for sexual acts suffices for ablution. Tayammum for other reasons will not suffice for any other baths or ablutions and we must add another Tayammum for each ablution required by subsequent acts. When water becomes available we must perform the bath for sexual acts before any further acts that require purity are performed .



Impurity means dirt and filth linguistically, while in the custom of jurisprudence, it is a legal consideration concerning a thing existing in this world which it is not permitted to eat or drink or are not permitted to be on the person, body or clothes during prayer and other acts, although there are exceptions and exemptions.


The Sorts of Impurities:

The first and the second:

Are the Faeces and Urine of the: Human being.

Animal: This means that animal whose meat is not permissible to eat legally, whether consumption is prohibited as for dogs and pigs, or the prohibition is conditional like the animal that is usually to be consumed but eats or lives on the faeces of human beings or the animal which is used for human beings to ride upon.

The Third: Is semen which is an impurity whether the source of a man or an animal, if its semen is similar to man's, whether its meat is lawfully edible or not.

The fourth and the fifth: wild pig and dog.

The sixth: A dead animal. Any animal that has died from a cause other than legal slaughter is unclean.

The Seventh: The blood which comes from an animal that has veins and flowing blood.

The Eighth: Intoxicating liquor and the juice of grapes if it has boiled unless its volume is reduced, by the boiling, to two thirds of the original.

The Ninth: The non-believer and those like him. He is the person who refuses to believe in one of these three:


1- Allah's existence, He is one, unique, that He does not produce offspring and He is not born from another.

2- Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, that he is the final prophet, that the Quran which is in the hands of Muslims was sent down to the Prophet and is the eternal miracle and proof of Muhammad's prophecy.

3-Doom's day when Allah reanimates mankind, the first and last generations to judge them for their deeds in this world.


Sometimes we apply the word non-believer (impurity) to some sects of Muslims , these sects are:

1- Al-Ghulat (extremely extremist): It is an extremist sect that split from the Shia, they are radically extravagant.

2- Al-Nawasib: is a sect hostile to the household of the Prophet.

3- Al-Haluleen [a branch of mysticism].

4- Al-Qadiyani: They believe in the prophecy of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed.


How Things Become Impure:

Pure things can become impure by coming into contact with impure things as in the following cases:

1- The impurity is liquid or wet and transfers it's wetness to a dry object.

2- Impurities that are wet or liquid come into contact with a molten or liquid substance such as a drop of urine falling into a small quantity of water or milk.

3-Impurities that are dry touch objects that are wet or liquid.


The Rules of Purity and Impurity

The First: Purity is a condition for prayer, there is no difference whether for the body or for clothing.

The Second: Purity is also important for the place or object where the person puts his brow during the prayer .

The Third: It is prohibited to eat or drink impure substances or food polluted by them. Also it is improper and prohibited to sell or buy such impure things if they have no lawful use.

The Fourth: It is prohibited to defile mosques, and it is obligatory for Muslims to purify them at once if they become impure.

The Fifth: It is prohibited to defile the holy shrines as mentioned for mosques .


The Purifiers:

A purifier means the thing with which we can remove and negate impurity from things that have become impure.


The First is Water: Water can purify every dirty and impure thing after the same impurity is removed.


Abundant Water:

Can attain purity with the following conditions:

a. The water should be clean.

b. The water should be pure and not mixed.

c. The cause of impurity is removed from the thing that has become impure.

d. The water should reach all the parts that are impure. If the impurity is a result of urine, dog saliva, pig, wine or the death of rats, we follow these steps:


1- The utensil that became impure because of wine must be washed with water 3 times.

2- The vessel that a dog has licked, should be purified by rubbing the vessel with dust mixed with a little water before washing. Then this is removed and wash the vessel with water to be pure.

3- We must wash the vessel seven times if a pig drank from it or the pig touched the vessel while moist. It is precaution to apply the rule of the pig to rats.

4- We must wash the thing made impure by the urine of the pig, person or infant twice whether the water is abundant or little but if the water is running then one time is enough.


Little Water:

Purification by little water depends on the following:

a. The water should be pure.

b. We must remove the impurity that causes the impurity before we begin purification.

c. The water should reach all the impure parts.

d. We must pour the little water onto the impure spot and not immerse the impure thing into the water. If we immerse it into the little water, then the water will become impure too.

Note: The water that runs off from the washing is impure if it is  the first or second washes.


The Second: Chemical Transformation.

The Third: Physical Change.

The Fourth: Islam.

The Fifth: The ground can purify itself if we remove an impurity then even the moisture of the ground that touched it will be pure.


Also the ground can purify the impure things when these conditions pertain:

A. The impure thing is the sole of the foot or shoes and sandals.

B. To walk on the ground, after the removal of the impurity itself, to the extent of 15 cubit [seven to seven and a half meters].

C. The ground on which we walk is clean [pure].

The Sixth: Sun purifies walls, roofs and also trees, doors, fruits on tree, vegetables before their harvest and as a general rule also cars ships…etc.


Purity by Sunlight depends on:

1. The removal of the impurity.

2. Removing the moisture of the impurity and wetness by the heat of the sun.

3. The Sunlight must fall on that place that is impure. It is good to add air or the heat of a fire with the sunlight to dry the impure place where the sun has a greater effect in removing the impure moisture.


The Ways of Proving Purity and Impurity.

If a Muslim knows of the purity or impurity of something, he should act according to his knowledge. If he doubts if something is pure or not, then he should consider it pure. It is the same if he knew the purity of something then he doubted it. As for the person who was aware of the impurity of something but then thinks that purification may have taken place, he should consider that thing impure.


We can prove impurity by the following:

a. The evidence of two just persons.

b. The witness of a person trusted for giving information whether he is a man, a woman or a boy of any age.


As for purity, we follow the same steps as for discerning impurity. We can also prove purity if we see a Muslim, whose acts fulfill his obligations and is known to act in accord with the rules of purity uses an object where purity is required. Even if we know it was impure and if we know that he was aware of that impurity and we see, after a period of time, the Muslim using that item on occasions and places where purity is required, then we have the right to consider the thing pure without questioning him if he purified it or not.