The Book of Prayer

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The prayer is foundation and support in religion. The edifice of Islam is based on the prayer. There is no duty in jurisprudence which is similar to it. It was narrated from the Ahlul Bayt (prophet's household), peace be upon them, that prayer is the first deed to be examined. It is the identity card of believers.

 

The Meaning of Prayer:

The prayer is the language of entreaty but legally it means a compound, worthy of consideration, as arranged by the Holy legislator who formed certain deeds in a limited shape and form. The first of these deeds is the Takbir [Allah is Great] and the last is the Salaam.

 

The Parts of The Prayer:

They are Intention, takbirat al-Ihram, standing, reading al-Hamd and a sura in the first two rakaat (bow) of every prayer, dhikr [mentioning Allah] in the third and fourth rakaat; the bow, genuflection, testimony and salaam .

 

The Sorts of Prayer:

The prayer has many sorts. Some prayers are compulsory and some are recommended.

The First: The daily prayers are five obligatory prayers: the prayer of the morning, the prayer of daytime, the prayer of noon, the prayer of nightfall and the night prayer.

The Second: Is the prayer of Friday if the conditions are met.

The Third: The prayers for the two Eids (feasts). They are prayers that the person liable must perform on the feast of "Al –Firt" [breaking of fasting] and "Al-Adhha" when the conditions of Friday prayer and its obligation are meeting.

The Forth: The prayer for the dead person.

The Fifth: The prayer performed after the circumambulation of the Kaaba when performing the rites of Hajj and Umra (minor hajj).

The Sixth: The prayer that is obligatory due a vow or swearing an oath.

The Seventh: The prayer by elder son as a deputy for his dead father.

The Eighth: The prayer of precaution that should be performed because of a fault in one of the prayers Note: we shall explain that in its place, by Allah's willing.

The Ninth: The prayer of miracles or signs, we must perform this prayer when some extraordinary phenomenon takes place in the universe.

 

The General Conditions For Prayer

The First: The purity of the body is an obligation except for the blood from wounds and ulcers if the area of blood is less than the first segment of the thumb.

 

The Second: The clothes; their conditions are:

a. They must not be made of the skin of a dead animal.

b. They must not be of the skin of an animal whose meat is prohibited.

c. They are not usurped from others.

d. They clothes should be opaque to conceal the body and should not be transparent.

e. They must not be made of pure silk or mixed when the proportion of silk is higher or woven of gold when the person is a man or an hermaphrodite, but the woman is not prohibited from any these clothes.

f. It must be pure, if it is enough to cover the body legally; meaning that the clothes could be from two parts or more, even one of it is not to cover the body unless with another piece of cloth, in this case it is enough.

 

Their purity

The Third Condition:" The place": This includes everything that someone uses for prayer or the prayer depends on. We must consider these points in the place:

a. The place must be free from impurities that might run onto the floor of the place used for prayer while prayer.

b. The place of prostration should be free from any impurity whether it is wet or not.

c. Stability. The person praying must do so a firm and stable place so that he may bow and kneel with confidence.

d. As a precaution man should not pray in front of a woman or she could be beside him. Man can pray in front of a woman if the gap between them is not greater than four and a half meters.

e. It is best if there is not a statue or picture of a living creature in the place of prayer.

f. The place should not be one prepared for acts or materials of impurity.

g. As an absolute precaution the prayers should not be read in a place used for the consumption or trade in alcohol.

h. Prayer is not allowed towards statues if they are not covered. It is an ugly deed for someone to be in the situation of worshipping in any place that is abhorred by the Lord i.e. usurped.

 

The Fourth condition:The Qibla.

The people must pray towards the Kaaba during the compulsory prayers but not for the commendable prayers.

The Fifth condition: The times of prayer:

Allah, praise be to Him, are specified for most of the prayers, both the compulsory and commendable. The worshipper should perform each prayer in its time. If he deliberately prays at the wrong time the prayer is void and if it late then he is disobediences. He has disobeyed The Lord, and he will be liable for the punishment of doom's day and for punishment in this world.

 

The Times of the Daily and Compulsory prayer

1- The prayer of noon and afternoon, their time is from the middle of the day to sunset.

2- The prayer of the noon is from the middle of the day-time until there is enough time left before sunset for eight units of prayer, and the time for the afternoon prayer is from the end of the noon prayer or the time for four units of prayer after noon until sunset. The time between them is common but we must perform the noon prayer before the afternoon prayer.

3- The prayer after sunset and the prayer of night. The prayer after sunset begins at the disappearance of the redness in the sky and it will go on until there is enough time for seven units of prayer before the middle of the night. The time for the prayer of the night begins at a time enough for three units of prayer after the redness of the sky disappears up to just before the middle of the night but must be after the  completion of the prayer after sunset.

4- The prayer of the morning: begins from the truthful dawn until the sunrise.

 

A religious question:

If a person delays the prayer after sunset on purpose or with a valid excuse until time remains to the middle of the night that is only enough for four units, then he will have missed the time for the prayer after sunset and he must pray the night prayer first, then, later perform the nightfall prayer as a delayed prayer Qadha.

 

The General Rules For Daily Prayers and Their Morals

As for the morals, they are considered requisite and they are many:

 

The First: Is the Adhan which means calling to prayer. It is commendable and emphatic; its form is as follows:

Allahu Akbar [four times].

Ashhadu Ann la Illaha illa Allah [twice].

Ashhadu Anna Muhammadan Rasool Allah [twice] .

Haya Ala al-salah [twice].

Haya Ala al-Falah [twice]

Haya Ala Khair al-A ’mel [twice]

Allahu Akbar [twice].

La Illah Illa Allah [twice].

 

The Second the Iqama: As a precaution the Iqama, in compulsory prayers, is not omitted particularly for the five daily prayers. There is an exception to this rule for the obligatory and commendable prayers for vows, promises and oaths. Its form is:

Allah Akbar [twice].

Ashhadu Ann La Illah Illa Allah [twice].

Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasool Allah [twice].

Haya Ala al-Salah [twice].

Haya al-Falah [twice].

Haya Ala Khair al-A 'mel [twice].

Qad Qamet al-Salah [twice].

Allah Akbar [twice].

La Illah Illa Allah [once].

Purity and proper clothing are considered necessary for Iqama.

 

Prayer in Traveling:

 

The traveler must shorten his prayer. He prays two units for the prayer of noon, afternoon and night like the morning prayer, if these conditions exist. They are as follows:

1- The journey must be a round trip of 43 and 1/5 kilometers.(go and back, or both).

2- The continuation of the intention that means if he decided to cover the distance, but he changed his mind later or hesitated, then in this case, the effect of traveling will not be recognized legally and he will pray as normal.

3- The traveler does not intend residing ten days or more in the place of destination before reaching the minimum distance.

4- The traveler dose not intend visiting his homeland before reaching the minimum distance.

5- The traveling is not illicit or for illicit purposes, like the wife traveling without permission from her husband or traveling to commit a theft or to perform adultery.

6- The traveling must not be for enjoyment or for hunting or amusement, but if traveling is for hunting to feed his family or for trade, then the rules of traveling will be applied legally to him.

7- The person must not travel continually like Bedouins.

8- The person must not practice traveling as a job like a driver or merchant.

9- The traveler is not included in the rules of traveling unless he has passed the limit which means a place beyond the walls and houses of a town where the traveler cannot hear the adhan being called except by loud-speaker or radio or T.V. Also it is a distance at which we cannot distinguish individual houses or what is similar to them.

 

Invalidation of the prayers of a traveler is done by teh following:

a. Passing by the homeland.

b. Intension to stay ten days and more.

c. Hesitation to stay or not, if he stays in a place, and he still hesitate, but more than 30 days pass then he consider that place as his homeland.

 

From The Rules of Traveler:

The commendable voluntary prayers in the daytime are abolished, but those at night are not abolished.

If a traveler prays the full prayer and the conditions for shortening the prayer are in force, and he was aware of the rule and aware of his being a traveler, his prayer becomes invalid. He should repeat it in its correct form even if it is qadha. If he was ignorant that the rule of the traveler is shortening the prayer although he was aware that he was traveling then in this case, there is no need to repeat the prayer. If he was forgetful of his traveling while knowing the rule of the traveler and prayed the full prayer, he should repeat the shortened prayer.

If a person missed a prayer when he was traveling, he should perform as shortened when he can. Also if he missed the prayer in is time when at the place of residence and wanted to perform it as Qadha in his traveling, he should perform it fully.

 

The traveler has the right to choose either full prayer or shortened in the following blessed places:

a. Al-Masjid al-Haram [the Holy Mosque, Mecca].

b. The Prophet's Mosque.

c. Al-Kufa Mosque.

d. Al-Hussein's Meadow "Rawdha" including the area that surrounds the Holy Shrine of Imam al-Hussein, peace be upon him. These rules of Hussein's Holy Shrine do not include the mosque attached with it and the surrounding galleries, and also the place on which the Shrine of "Habeeb Ibn Mudhahir" Al-Asadi, peace be upon him, was built.

 

The Parts of Prayer in-Detail:

 

1.Intention:

These matters should be available to attain [fulfill] the considerable intention in the validity of prayer:

a. The person should intend rapprochement Allah by his deed [prayer].

b. He should get rid of any ugly and bad intention in his deed like hypocrisy, dissimulation and hollowness.

c. He should limit himself to the specialized name of the prayer and its description as appointed to it legally. These matters should be maintained in the prayer until its end.

 

2. Takbirat al-Ihram:

It is the magnification of Allah [Allahu Akbar]. It is the first part of prayer. It is called by this name, because it requires the prohibition of anything other than the prayer on the part of the person praying, and it is an essential fundament [Rukn] of the prayer.The prayer will be invalid without it or by repeating it deliberately or by forgetfulness. This declaration cannot be replaced or substituted by another expression. The pronunciation must be according to the grammar of Arabic. On precaution, we expand and magnify the letter (L) in the word "Allah" and show the letter (R) in the word (Akbar) with distinction. We must follow these steps [matters]:

a. Standing in the case of the takbir with stability and tranquility.

b. Raising the two hands with palms towards the Qiblah, level with the two ears and joining the fingers even the two thumbs.

c. The voice should be audible at least by the person himself.

 

3. Standing:

It is an obligatory part of the prayer [Rukn] and we should stand in an upright but relaxed manner. Bowing must be preceded and followed by standing. Also, the two prostrations must be preceded by standing. If a person is unable to stand then they should pray while be sitting, but if they can stand for the takbirat al-Ihram then they should at least do that before sitting for the remainder of the prayer. If the person is able to stand and perform any of movements or positions of prayer from standing they must do so. If the matter was between standing up during takbirat al-Ihram or to stand up before prostration and move from standing then on precaution the repetition of the prayer is better, once with the takbirat al-Ihram from standing and another standing before prostration.

 

The Reading:

This means reading Sura al-Hamd and another Sura in the first two units of prayer. Not doing so invalidates the prayer as with the omission of any rukn.

 

We must perform these matters in it:

A. The reading of al-Hamd, begins with the Basmallah, and we must a complete chapter after it, but not the four chapters in which we must kneel nor the long chapters.

B. The reading must be correct according to Arabic grammar and the pronunciation should be correct according to accepted standards.

C. The person who does not know Arabic must learn it, and upon precaution should not be charged for being taught. If it is difficult for them to learn Arabic because the time is limited or for other reasons, they must pray behind a person who speaks Arabic. If that is difficult for them, they must pray however they can.

D. The reading must be continuous and in the correct order.

E. We must consider the chapter (sura) of al-Dhuha and Alam Nashrah as sigle chapters, without the two chapters of al-Fil and al-Ilaf. We can read any one of them with al-Fatiha on the consideration that every one of them is a chapter.

F. We must consider the Basmallah as a part of every chapter (except sura al-Taubaa) and if we omit it on purpose, the prayers will be invalid.

G. Men (but women) should read loudly in the prayer of morning and during the first two units of the two prayer of the sunset and the night (if he prays alone) and quietly in the prayer of the daytime and noon. The woman should read silently during her prayers. She can pray loudly in the loud prayers, if a male stranger cannot hear her.

 

The Rule of the Last Units:

The person can choose in the third and the fourth units between the silent reading al-Hamd or the four "Tasbihat" [praises] and they are: "Subhan Allah", and "Al-Hamdu Lillah", and "La Illaha Illa Allah", and "Allahu Akber" and the precaution is to repeat them three times and to seek forgiveness from Allah after them. Deliberately reading loudly in the third and fourth units will invalidate the prayer, but if the person was forgetful or ignorant of the rule, his prayer is valid.

 

Bowing:

It is bending forward until the two hands reach the two knees. It is a duty fundamental in every prayer without which the prayer is invalid, whether it is recommended or obligatory.

 

The Duties of Bowing:

A Bowing forward until the two hands reach the knees, but the precaution is bowing down to the extent of putting the palm of the hand on the knee with comfort.

B Mentioning Allah's Name: we may choose either, Al-Hamdu Lillah three times, or say once, subhan Rabbi al-A'azim wa bi hamdih.

C Stillness and steadiness throughout the obligatory mentioning of Allah and on precaution during all recitations.

D Standing after the bow and if a person goes directly to the prostration deliberately without standing then the prayer is invalid.

F Stillness when standing after the bow.

 

Prostration:

This means that we place our forehead on the ground in submission and humbleness before Allah, praise be to Him. We must do this twice in every unit of prayer and without these the prayer will be invalid and also if there is any defect in either of them caused deliberately, or by ignorance or forgetfulness. If we perform less than to the prayer is invalid and also if we increase the number deliberately, except in the case of group prayers when it is done in order to follow the "Imam".

 

The Duties of Prostration:

a. Seven parts of the body must touch the ground. They are: the forehead, the two palms of the hands, the two knees and the two big toes. Putting the brow on the ground completes the act of prostration and to increase or decrease the number of times this happens deliberately or forgetfully will invalidate the prayer.

b. Mentioning Allah's Name is obligatory once but as a precaution, choosing (subhanallah) three times or (subhana rabi al-A ’la wa bi hamdihi) once is enough.

c. Steadiness and stillness during the obligatory mentioning of Allah's name, but also on precaution, during the recommended repetitions.

d. The recitation must begin after putting the brow on the ground.

e. After raising the head from kneeling, we must sit still before moving into the second prostration.

f. The seven parts of the body must all remain in contact with the ground during the recitation.

g. The place where the head touches the ground may not be more than four finger thicknesses higher or lower than where the other six parts of the body touch the ground.

h. The forehead may only be lowered onto things that are allowed for use and these do not include edible vegetation or clothing.

I. The place where the forehead rests must be pure and clean.

k. After the second prostration in units of prayer where there is no recitation before standing the person should sit in stillness for a short period of time. This is at the end of the first unit in all prayers and at the end of the third unit in four unit prayers. If the person forgets and stands immediately without pausing to sit he should sit down and be still before rising again.

 

Testimony [ Tashahud ]:

It is an obligatory part of the prayer and its place is after the second prostration in the second last units of every prayer.

 

The Duties of Testimony:

A. The two testimonies, and their form: "Ashadu ann la illaha illa Allah wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ashahadu anna Muhammadan ‘ abduhu wa Rasooluh."

B. Prayer for Muhammad and his household and its form: (allahumma sali ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad.)

C. Sitting still while praying for the Prophet and his household.

D. Remaining still for all three recitations.

E. The sequence given must be followed.

F. The recitation should be continuous.

G. They must be recited in correct Arabic.

H. We can not substitute anything for the two testimonies.

 

Salutation "al-Taslim":

Its Duties: everything is required for this as for any other part of the prayer, no difference. It is a duty, but accidental errors concerned to it do not negate the prayer.

We must be stable and tranquil in it. The total salutation is three parts and it is said after the Tashahud of the final unit of every prayer.

a. (Al-salamu' alayka ayyuha nabiyyu wa rahmatuallahi wabarakatuh). This is a recommended act.

b. (Al-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadil allahi alsalihin.)

c. (Al-salamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatuallah wa barakatuh.)

The two items (a and c) are commendable, but item (b) is compulsory.

 

 

 

The matters that affect the validity of Prayer:

The First: Omitting something that is obligatory as explained above.

The Second: Invalidation of purity.

The Third: Clasping the hands together during the recitation.

The Fourth: Turning the body away from the Qibla.

The Fifth: Deliberate speech that is not part of accepted recitation even if it is as small as one letter if it has a known meaning.

The Sixth: Laughing loudly even if unintentionally.

The Seventh: Weeping loudly for worldly matters, and as a precaution we should avoid such weeping even if silent. If it is for the other world and for fear of Allah, praise be to Him, then there is no harm in it and it will raise the status of the prayer.

The Eighth: Any action that changes the form of the prayer or interrupts its sequence.

The Ninth: Eating and drinking deliberately or forgetfully.

The Tenth: Saying Amen ! after reading the chapter of "al-Fatiha".

The Eleventh: Doubt the number of units performed in the treble and dual unit prayers and also about the first two units in four unit prayers, if the person does not habitually doubt, but if he has the habit of doubting his prayers will be valid.

The Twelfth: Adding or removing one of the obligatory acts so that the prayer is greater or lesser than it should be.

 

The Rules of Defects in Prayer:

The defects are divided into types:

The First Type:

Deliberate faults in the prayer invalidate the whole prayer and the prayer should be immediately abandoned and repeated correctly.

The Second Type:

A defect that is caused by ignorance. If a person committed a fault in one of the essentials or conditions of the prayer through ignorance his prayer will be invalid. If he made a mistake in the rule that he did not know of the thing then on precaution he should abandon that prayer and repeat it. As for the person, who is ignorant at the time of performance but knew later on that his robe [for example] was spotted with impurity his prayer is valid [correct].

 

The Third Type:

A defect in of the essentials of the prayer makes it invalid. The prayer is not be invalidated by omitting the non-essential duties of the prayer. As for an increase in the number of the parts of the prayer, if it is by an essential, then the prayer is invalid. If the increase is by a non-essential part, then the prayer will not be invalidated. As for the defect in the conditions such as: purity or praying in the wrong direction then his prayer will be invalidated. If the defect concerns some other matter to these or the essential fundaments and is caused without intent the prayer is valid. Doubt after the completion of an act or the prayer must be ignored.

 

Prelusion:

Doubt may occur while we are doing an act like doubting the correctness of recitation while doing it. Doubt may also occur after we have finished doing something. We need to know that every part of prayer or fundament has a special place and a limited position. It is the place which the legislator arranged and put in the prayer from the beginning until the end. This place is limited and defined by its relationship to the other parts of the prayer.

1- If the person praying has not commenced the subsequent essential then he should return and perform the missing essential.

2- The forgotten act must have a specific place in the prayer and that is where we must return to correct the fault.

3- If there is a doubt after the salams as to whether the prayer was performed properly this should be ignored but if he has several doubts about the same act the prayer is invalid. Otherwise every forgotten thing must be made up unless the prayer is finished except if the forgotten thing was an obligatory fundament, then the prayer is not valid. If the forgotten thing is not a fundament, then his prayer would be valid. If he remembers the missing thing or becomes aware of the fault before going beyond the obligatory place for it, then he should correct the defect [the forgotten part] without any differentiation in whether that forgotten part was a fundament or not.

 

The Query:

Doubt sometimes exists as to whether the person performed it or not or about the conditions of the prayer or its parts or its units. If the person was doubtful whether he prayed or not, and that doubt is after passing the time for the prayer, then this doubt should be ignored and he will consider that he has prayed it. If he doubts and he is in the time for that prayer, he should perform the prayer. If he doubts whether there is sufficient time or not, then he ought to consider the time remaining to be sufficient.

 

The Uncertainty about Conditions:

If the person doubted some conditions of the prayer, then there are many possibilities: either the doubt came before beginning the prayer or during performing it or after finishing it. If that doubt was before entering it, then he should attain that condition by one of these two methods:

1- He must be sure with inner consciousness that the conditions is attained.

2- He must attain the condition in a legal and manifest way, like a person who was with purity and later doubted its remaining or not, he should consider himself pure for worship, and the same, if he doubts something about the conditions but is engaged in prayer. If the doubt was after finishing the prayer, then the doubt is not considered and his prayer is complete and valid but he should attain the condition with certainty for the following prayers.

 

Doubt about the Parts:

If a person doubts about the parts of prayer, then the doubt is either before commencing the following part, or after doing so. So if it is before the next part then he must perform the doubtful part correctly. If the doubt was after beginning the following part, then he must go ahead with his prayer and not pay attention to that doubt.

 

Doubt in the number of units:

Where a person is uncertain of the number performed and whether it is more or less than required.

 

The First Type:

It is the doubt that causes a defect in the prayer in such a manner that the person should consider the prayer invalid and repeat them:

a. The doubt in the dual unit prayer like the prayer of morning and the traveler's prayer.

b. The doubt in the treble unit prayer like the prayer of sunset.

c. The doubt is that he prayed one unit or more.

d. The doubt is between two or more before completing the two prostrations [Al-Sajdetain].

e. The doubt is between two or five or more even after he completed the two prostrations.

f. The doubt is between three and six or between three and more than six.

g. The doubt is between four and six or more..

h. The doubt is the number of units and he does not know how many units he prayed.

 

The Second Type:

The doubt is in the number of units and we can repair the prayer and complete it without any need to abandon it and this sort has many types:

a. The doubt between the second and third after completing two units in the four unit prayer. He must regard it as the third unit and begin the fourth to complete his prayer then he should pray one unit of precautionary prayer .

b. The doubt is between the third and the fourth unit. The duty is that he must regard it as the fourth unit and complete his prayer then he prays one unit standing or two sitting.

c. The doubt is between the second and the fourth after completing the two units consequently he should consider where he is as being the fourth. Then he should complete his prayer and also pray after it two units standing.

d. He doubts whether it is the second, third or the fourth after completing the two units, then he should consider it to be the fourth and he ought to complete his prayer. He then performs two units standing and then two units sitting as a precaution.

e. He doubts between the fourth and a fifth after completing the two units so he should consider it the fourth and he should witness and Salute and then he performs two prostrations for forgetfulness.

f. He doubts between it being the fourth or a fifth when standing. Then he should sit and raise his hand for this standing and his doubt is changed into doubt between the fourth and the third, so he should considered it the fourth and complete his prayer and afterwards perform two units sitting or one unit standing.

g. The doubt is between three and five as he is standing. So, he should sit down, then his doubt will be changed to between two and four and he should consider it the fourth and complete his prayer, then he should pray one unit standing up or two units sitting down.

h. The doubt is between the third, fourth and fifth while standing up. So he should sit down and his doubt will be changed to the second, third or fourth, then he should consider it to be the fourth unit sitting and complete his prayer, then he should pray two units standing up or two units sitting down.

I. The doubt is between the fifth and the sixth while standing up and he should cancel that standing and sit, then the doubt will be changed to one between the fourth and the fifth and he should consider it the end of the fourth unit and complete his prayer, then he should kneel down for the two prostrations of forgetfulness, if he did not begin reading the tasbih but if he had he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness three times.

 

Precautionary Prayer:

It is a prayer formed of one or two units and supplements the prayer if there has been an error. It is an obligation to perform this prayer for the doubts and errors described above.

 

The Duties of Precautionary Prayer:

All of the things required for other prayers are required for Precautionary prayers, except that there is no need for adhan or iqama and only sura al-Hamd is read in each unit. The final unit, either the first or second concludes with the witnessing and salams. There should be no delay in starting the precautionary prayer after the ending of the faulty prayer. If that happened, we should as an act of precaution rather than obligation, perform the precautionary prayer. It may not be performed as a congregational prayer.

Ramifications:

1. If a person had certainty before he began the prayer of precaution that the prayer that he performed was defective then the prayer of precaution would not be sufficient, but he should complete that prayer by adding one unit or two and follow with two prostrations for forgetfulness.

2. If he knew with certainty, after the precaution prayer, that his prayer was defective then he should consider the prayer to be valid.

3. If he knew with certainty after the precaution prayer that the defect in the prayer was more than what he imagined during his doubt, then he should repeat his obligatory prayer from the beginning.

4. If it appeared to him that the prayer's deficiency was certain while praying the precaution prayer, then he should cancel that prayer and repeat the obligatory prayer.

5. If he doubts that he prayed the prayer of precaution or not, is aware of its obligation and is still in the time of the prayer then he should act on precaution and perform it but if it is after the time of the prayer, then he should disregard his doubt.

 

Performing the Forgotten Parts

If the person realizes that he has missed a non-essential part of the prayer and he does not remember until after he could correct what had been missed, then he should perform that part later after finishing the prayer. If a person forgot the first testimony and did not remember until in the bow of the following unit, then he should perform the testimony after the prayer and he should perform two prostrations of forgetfulness after the forgotten part.

 

Ramifications:

a. In performing the prostration and Tashahud we should have the intention that we are performing this part of prayer instead of so and so that we missed during the prayer.

b. A long separation between the end of the prayer and performing the missed parts is not allowed, and we should start soon after the "Salam". It does not matter if we make an entreaty mention Allah shortly such as in the three takbirat that come after the compulsory Salam.

c. If the action or contravention took place deliberately or forgetfully we should perform the forgotten thing and then repeat the prayer;

d. If the forgotten parts were numerous: for example we forgot one prostration [sajda] in the first unit, and another in the second unit, then for precaution we should perform them and the required prostrations of forgetfulness for each.

e. If he missed the recitation in bowing or prostration but he did perform the actions fully, then he should not compensate by performing the recitation afterwards.

f. If he doubts that he performed the testimony or one prostration, then he should perform them.

g. If he has to perform the prayer of precaution, and a forgotten part, then as a precaution he should pray the precaution prayer, and then perform the forgotten part.

 

The Prostration of Forgetfulness and Its Reasons:

There are many matters:

a. A person speaks forgetfully but not the Quran, an entreaty or the remembrance of Allah.

b. Speaking on purpose thinking that the prayer is over.

c. A Salam which is not in its place.

d. Forgetting the Tashahud until after the time for correction.

e. The doubt between the four and the five after completing the two kneeling [Al-Sajdatain].

f. Standing up in the place of prostration and vice versa.

g. It is best is to perform the prostration of forgetfulness for every increase or decrease. If something took place for which we should kneel down, then we should perform it, whether that cause is one kind or various kinds.

 

Performing the Prostration of Forgetfulness and Its Duties:

1- The intention is to rapprochement Allah.

2- The brow is placed on the ground or something that is valid to prostrate on, and the prostration is the same as in prayer.

3- We must recite while we are kneelin "Bismillahi wa billah, Allahumma Sali Ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad", or say "BismiIllahi wa billahi al-Salamu Alayka, Ayuha al-Nabi wa rahmat Allahi wa baraktuh". Then raise the head and sit tranquilly, then kneel down as before and after that sit and testify [Al-Tashahud] as in the prayer, followed by a salam. The obligatory greeting only will be enough.

4- If a doubt occurs after the prayer if something that requires kneeling has happened or not, then it should be considered that nothing happened.

5- If it becomes known that there was cause for a prostration but there is a doubt if the prostration was performed then a prostration should be performed.

6- If it is believed that there is a cause for prostration during the prayer but when the prayer is complete the cause is doubted then the cause should be ignored.

7- If it is known that acts requiring prostration have occurred but there is a doubt about the number of them then the smallest number only will be acted upon.

 

The Doubts We Ought not to Care About:

There are many doubts that we ought not to consider;

a. Doubt of a thing in retrospect.

b. Doubting after the passing of the time, whether that doubt is in one of the conditions of the prayer or in one part of it.

c. Doubt after the obligatory Taslim.

d. Habitual and numerous doubts whether in the number of bowings or the actions or the conditions.

e. Doubt that is not firm or is superficial that can be removed by patience and thoughtfulness.

f. Doubt that takes place [as a result of] for the"Imam" leader] and for the follower of the Imam [imitator] with keeping the other that the doubtful person will come back to the keepr, if the doubt is in the number of the bowings, As for the deeds [actions] that means every person works [acts] according to his function [duty].

g. Doubt in the number of the bowings of (Al-Nafila) prayer, which means the prayer, which is not imposed as a rite legally, then he has the choice between two consideration: the first is to consider what is in his hand the least or the most, if one of them was not causing a defect [flaw] in the prayer or in the obligation or probability which dose not require corruption [invalidity] in the prayer.

 

The Rules for the Missed Prayer:

 

The Obligatory Prayers:

Time specific prayer: it is the prayer that the legislator appointed a limited time and we must perform it at that time.

Time unspecified prayer: we can perform this prayer at any time that we are able to. Suppose the commissioned person did not perform the temporary at its time, he can perform it outside the time and this is called Qadha. The Qadha of a temporary prayer does not have a fixed time and can be performed at the discretion of the person upon whom it is due.

 

The Causes of Al-Qadha:

1- If the commissioned person missed one of the rites in its due place or time and he is adult, intelligent and sane, whether the missing is on purpose, by forgetfulness or ignorance, its Qadha is due. A prayer will be treated as missed if it was invalid because of a fault or omission and its time has elapsed.

2- There is no Qadha for the following:

a. The lad [the boy], during his boyhood, is not required to perform Qadha.

b. Madness if it includes that period of time when the act was obligatory whether that madness was midsummer madness or periodical madness.

c. A person who was an atheist [the genuine unbeliever] is not required to perform Qadha for the acts missed during his atheism, but the opposite is true for the apostate [renegade] and he should perform what he missed during his apostasy "Ridda".

4- The confined woman and the menstrual woman, if their hadath included the whole period of an obligation owe no Qadha for it. They should perform the Qadha of acts if the excuse was removed before the finishing of the time for an act and they should correct what has passed even if the time were only enough for one unit of prayer. They should also perform Qadha for acts that were obligatory if the accouchement or the periods [courses] came suddenly to them after the for an act had begun to the extent that there would have been enough time to perform a complete prayer in accord with the usual conditions that applied to them.

5- Precautionary, a person who fainted ought to perform what was missed during that time.

6- The person should perform what was [missed] in the case of sleeping, drunkenness and anesthesia.

7- The person who has become inconsistent to the rules of prayers…etc., that he has completed and then discerns a defect. If he performed his prayer correctly according to his previous doctrine (his sect) he should not perform Qadha for prayer. As for the person who performed his prayer invalidly according to his way [creed], or he did not perform it originally, then he should perform its' Qadha (according to Shia rulings.

8- If a lad became adult [mature], or a mad person became sane [sound] or the atheist [unbeliever] became Muslim before the end of a time for a particular prayer, they all should perform that prayer, even though the time was not enough except for one unit and if they didn't perform it, they should give its Qadha.

9- The person who loses the two purities, should pray as he can [according to his ability] and if he does not do so, he should perform its Qadha with complete parts and conditions.

 

The Prayers that Require "Al-Qadha"

We should perform Qadha for the missed daily and other obligatory prayers. As for prayer of "Al-Nafila" (supererogatory) [not imposed as a rite or duty], there is no Qadha for them unless they are subject to a vow, promise, or oath [swearing] to be performed at a certain time and if it were not done at that time, then as precaution, we should perform its Qadha. If a person missed the Friday prayer and it was obligatory for him, then he should come with the prayer of noon instead of it. If the time for the noon prayer has finished then the Qadha is for that.

 

The Time of " Al-Qadha":

It is allowed to perform them at any time: night, day traveling and staying at your residence, but we ought to regard the manner of the prayer and its time, and also we must consider the arrangement of the prayers in the day. If we ignore the arrangement, then we should repeat them as a precaution in order . We need not be in a hurry[instantly] to perform the missed prayers, for there is must time to do them since we are alive, but it is not allowed to neglect be lazy or delay more than necessary by the order of our "Lord" or we scorn praying.

Also we should not perform the missed prayer in preference to the prayer that is due. It is not allowed to deputize a person to perform the missed prayers while the person himself is alive even if that person is unable to perform the prayers. It is allowed to perform the missed prayer in congregation whether the leader prays the missed prayer or the current prayer. Those, who are pardoned [excused] for a time legally, are not allowed to hurry to perform the missed prayer if they believe that probably their excuses may be removed legally.

 

Who should perform "Al-Qadha" ?

a. The person who missed a rite should begin performing "Al-Qadha", since he is alive and he is not allowed to deputize a person or pay money for a person to do them for him.

b. The elder son should perform "Al-Qadha" as a deputy for what his deceased father missed from prayer and fasting unless they were missed because of custom and the legal attitude [i.e. when he is not a Muslim].

c. It is allowed to pay for an employee to pray the prayers of the dead person and do other duties as a deputy, so that the dead person is freed from the obligations. Also it is allowed to contribute as a deputy for the dead person's duties [zakat, khums…etc.] and it is commendable to make donations and gifts.

 

Prayer in Congregation

It is commendable and approved to pray in a group. This approval in some prayers is more than for others Performing prayers at their fixed time is more commendable than performing them as "Al-Qadha". Also the group prayer in the morning, the evening and night is more commendable than others. The group prayer has great rewards and compensation. Many narratives were said about Ahl al-Bayt [Al-Rasool's household] peace be upon them, praising group prayers.

 

The Situations in which Group Prayer must be Performed:

1- Friday prayer must be performed in congregation otherwise it is not valid.

2- The prayer of the two eids [feasts] if the conditions are available [by obligation].

3- If the time is limited, and the person could not learn the prayer and there is someone he can follow, then he should pray behind that person.

4- If the person made a vow to Allah or he promised Allah or swore by Allah to pray in a group, then he should, and if he prayed alone [individually] his prayer would be correct but he should pay "Kaffara" "expiatory gift."

5- If a person is afflicted by suspicions and evil thoughts of the devil "Satan", then he should pray in a group so as to pray soundly and to get rid of the evil thoughts.

6- If the time is little for the first unit at the fixed time and there is an" Imam" who will lead prayer within the time.

7- If the commissioned person was slow in reading and the time is constraint, and he could not complete the prayer within its time then in this case, he should pray in a congregation who will complete the prayer in its time.

8- If a father and a mother, [the parents], ordered their son to pray in a group or behind an "Imam", then  the son, as a precaution, should not be opposed or contradicted them.

 

Some Rules about Group Prayer:

a. The supererogatory (Nafila) prayer  may not be prayed in congregation.(even in ghadeer).

b. Man is not allowed to pray in a group if the Imam is a woman.

c. The wife is not allowed to pray in a group, if her husband prevents her.

d. As a precaution, if one of the parents [father or mother] prevent their child ( a son or a daughter), so they must obey.

e. The minimum number for holding group prayer for the daily prayers is two persons including the "Imam" [one of the two is the Imam]. As for the prayer of Friday, there should be five persons including the Imam [four persons following].

f. It is allowed to follow in the daily prayers performed in time or as Al-Qadha. Consequently it is allowed for the person who was performing the prayer of "Al-Qadha" to imitate the person who was performing a prayer in its time and vice versa, and also the traveler might follow a resident, and it is allowed to follow as any one of the five prayers even when the Imam is praying another one of the five.

g. It is not allowed to follow in the prayer of the two eids[feasts], the prayers of signs, and "seeking water" [rain] [ "Al-Iisiska" prayer.]

 

The Imam of Group prayer his conditions, Morals and Functions.

1- He must be adult.

2- He must be sane and capable of discerning right from wrong.

3- He must be pious except in precaution (Taqyia).

4- He must be just.

5-He must be of legitimate birth .

6- Only a man may lead prayer if there is any man in the group.

 

The Duties of " Imam":

a. A person who is not certain of his own justness may not occupy position of the Imam for a praying group.

b. If two or three persons differed about the person who should become the Imam of the group prayer, then the choice would the person who is most trusted, and pious, and the man who always lead the prayer in that place.

c. On precaution, the uncircumcised person is not allowed to be Imam for group prayers.

d. On precaution the Imam should stand in front of those following his prayer. If there is only one follower, then it is sufficient that the place of kneeling for the follower is parallel to the knee or foot of the "Imam".

e. It is not allowed that the Imam's position is much higher clearly than the position of the follower, there is no objection to the follower standing higher than the Imam.

 

Some Morals of Group Prayer:

There are many matters:

1- A person who is purified by tayyamum , should not precede the person who is purified by wudhu (ablution) or ghusl (wash).

2- A weaver, a cupper and the tanner should not lead prayers unless the followers are of the same trade.

3- The follower should stand on the right side of the Imam, if he is alone.

4- The Imam should pray as if he is weaker than the followers and should not prolong the deeds of the prayer.

5- If the Imam felt that a person was coming to join the group prayer he should prolong his bowing to give the person time to join.

 

General Functions for Group Prayers:

a. The follower should stand behind the Imam.

b. There should not be an obstacle between the Imam and any believer it does not matter if there was a woman praying behind the Imam and it is O.K. if there is a short barrier which does not prevent the followers seeing the Imam.

c. The follower should not be very far from the Imam, unless there is lining up of prayers which they are connecting to each other.

d. On precaution, there should not be more than a step between the pace where the Imam stands and the kneeling-place of the follower.

e. The follower should not precede the Imam at the beginning or at the end.

f. The follower should follow the Imam in his deeds and he is not allowed to precede the Imam in bowing or kneeling…etc(and it is O.K. to comparison, step by step). If the prayer preceded the Imam forgetfully, then he should wait for the Imam's kneeling or bowing to be equal to him and then continue to follow, or he can back to the per situation.

g. On precaution the follower should not recite the verses in the first two units of prayer, but should instead busy himself by praising Muhammad and his household. In the audible prayer he should listen to the Imam otherwise he should busy himself in mentioning Allah and if he did not even murmur, then it is better to read with the intention of rapprochement not for the purpose of compensating. As for the last two bowings, the follower, as if he were alone, has the choice between reading "Al-Fatiha" or the four praises "Al-Tasbihat".

l. The Imam will not bear the responsibility except for the reading in the first two units and the correct performance of the rest of the deeds concern the follower himself.

 

The Daily Nawafil- supererogatory- [ Rawatib ]:

Many of "Al-Nawafil" prayers deal by the Holy lawgiver and named (daily Al-Nawafil), and it is commendable to pray them. There are some of them   to mention:

1. The "Nafila" of morning: This is two units prayed before the morning prayer and after the start of the dawn. Its time ends at the redness of the sunrise, and if that redness has appeared, then the person should pray the morning prayer and then he would perform a "Nafila" after that if he wished.

2. The Noon "Nafila": It includes eight units prayed in pairs . The time for it is from noon until the shadow of an object is equal in height to itself.

3. The Afternoon "Nafila": It is like those for the noon prayer and begins when the time of the noon prayer ends and the shade of things become double.

4. The Night-Fall "Nafila": It includes four units in pairs and its time is after the night-fall prayer until the redness of the sun vanishes.

5. Night "Nafila": It is also called "Al-Witr". It includes two units sitting or one unit standing. It is performed after the obligatory night prayer.

6. The Prayers of "Al-Ghufala": It is a prayer that earns the remission of sins, if the person is faithful and loyal to Allah, The Most High and the prayers are accepted by Him. Its form is as follows: The person magnifies Allah [Allahu Akbar], Then he reads "Al-Hamd". Then he reads verse 78, the chapter of Prophets The text of verse: "Wa thul nun ieeth thahda mugadhben…" up to, "wa kathalika nunji al mumineen". Then he kneel and prostrate and performs them in a normal form. Then stands and reads "Al-Hamd", and reads verse [95] from the chapter of "Al-Anaam": The text: "wa indehu mafateeh Al-Gaiab La Yaalemuha illa Hoo…(To his saying)…Illa fi Kitabben Mubeen". Then he raises his hands for devoutness, for Allah's fear, Then he says "allahumma ann tu ’ sali ala Muhammad we Alli Muhammad we ann tef''al biya katha- Then he asks for his need then he says, "Allahumma anta walli naimati wal Qadir alla telibati, taalem hajati fa-asaluke ann tusali ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad wa an taf'al-biya katha", then he asks for his need again, then he praise for the Prophet and his Household. It is allowed to perform the above-mentioned matters sitting or standing.

7. The Night Prayer: It is eight prayers in pairs, as in morning prayer, and after that the two units of "al-shhfe" prayer" then without bowing in submission, there is an individual unit called "Al-Witr". It is better to be read after "Al-Hamd" The chapter of "Al-Tawhid" [ unification ]" Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad", three times although once is enough and then submit to Allah and it is commendable to prolong this submission and devotion to Allah. He should ask Allah for forgiveness for himself 70 times and pardon 300 times and ask Allah for remission of sins for 400 persons [male and female believers] whether they were alive or dead, and should mention their names one by one, then he should and complete the prayer as a final unit.

There are many commendable prayers, but the time does not allow us to mention it in details in this short explanation.

 

The Prayer of the Two [ Eids ] feasts:

It is a duty in the era of the Infallible Imam, peace be upon him, and commendable in the era of "Al-Ghayba" [absence]. It is allowed to be prayed in a group or individually. Its time is from sunrise until noon. It includes two units but with nine "Takbirat", five in the first unit and four in the second. It is distinguished from the dual prayer by this difference only.

Its Performance: After the intention, we perform "Takbirat Al-Ihram" then we read "Al-Hamd" then after that another chapter and it is better in the first unit to read the chapter of "Sabbih Bismi Rabika Al-A'ala", then we do five "Takbirat", and it is commendable to consciously submit to Allah with every "Takbir" and then implore Allah for what is wished . The unit is then completed like any other first unit. In the second unit after Al-Hamd, it is best to read the chapter of Al-Shams or the verse "Hal Ataka Hadeeth Al-Ghashiya", then magnify Allah four times "Al-Takbir". It is commendable to submit to Allah piously after every "Takbir" as in the first unit and the unit is completed like any second unit of a two unit prayer. The Imam then stands up, if the prayer is congregational, to deliver two orations.

 

The Prayer for Natural Events [Signs]:

It is two units with five bows in each and is obligatory upon certain conditions.

 

The Reasons for the Obligation of this prayer:

a. The eclipse of the sun and the moon eclipse whether they are partial or complete.

b. Earthquakes.

c. Anything in the universe that cause fear, terror and horror in human soul such as: darkness in day-time, tempest or fire in the sky or eclipsing. If any of these occur then those obligated cause fear to the most of the people, so the daily prayers are obliged to perform this prayer.

2- These occurrences must be established by the following methods:

a. Seeing the event.

b. The witness of two just men, or one trusted person a man or a woman.[no difference].

c. Those who have experience in observing the universe's movements.

d. The obligation is restricted to the country where the phenomenon is seen or is affected. If an event occurs in one part of a region, then as a precaution, the people in that area should perform the prayer of signs.

e. The repetition of this prayer is connected with the repetition of the causes.

5. Its time: In the two eclipses [the sun and the moon], the prayer begins with the beginning of eclipse and it extends until the clarity of the sky or the disappearance of the phenomenon is complete. As a precaution, we should see nothing of the sign. As for the rest of the signs, the prayer has no limited time from the beginning or the end. If the prayer of signs became obligatory and the person does not perform it, it will remain as his debt.

6. The Form of This Prayer: There are two form for this prayer but we shall explain one only for the purpose of briefness . The first form is as follows: The person should intend and perform "Takbirat Al-Ihram" and read the chapter of "Al-Fatiha": and another chapter, then he bows down, then he raises his head and reads "Al-Hamd" and a chapter, then he bows again and he repeats this for a total of five times, then he kneels down twice as is familiar and known in the normal prayer, then he stands up for the second unit, and performs what he performed in the first unit, then he completes the unit like other final units. He has the right to repeat after each "Al-Hamd" the same chapter or different ones.

7. There are many commendable matters in this prayer:

a. To say "Allahu Akbar" before and after bowing except for the fifth and the tenth bows which should be followed by saying, "Samia Allahu li man Hamida."

b. Al-Qunut [devoutness to Allah] five times before the second, the fourth, the sixth, the eighth and the tenth bows.

c. Performing this prayer in congregation makes the Imam bear responsibility only for reading the chapters and the follower is responsible for all other parts.

d. Read loudly.

e. Reading the long chapters.

f. Prolonging "Al-Qunut", bowing and kneeling.

8- A. Doubt in this prayer will cancel it because it is a dual-unit prayer.

B. If something wrong happened in this prayer which requires the kneeling of absentmindedness, then we should perform that after finishing the whole prayer as with the daily prayer.