The Book of Al-Hajj [Pilgrimage] and "Al-Umra" (minor hajj)

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Al-Hajj is an important rite in Islam, and it is one of the essential duties that the Sacred Legislator has urged. It must be performed once during a believer's life. Also in some cases Hajj should be performed for other reasons as: by deputation, for a vow and rental.

A Summary of the Form of Hajj.

If the home land of the person is 48 miles or more away from Mecca, then the person should perform first "Umrat Al-Tamatu" [enjoyment-Umra] and the deeds of this "Umra" are five:


The First: Al-Ihram

It is start from the time at which he passes specified places. The timings [Al-Mawaqeet] are as follows:-

1- The Mosque of "Al-Shajara" for the person who comes to Mecca via" Al-Madeena".

2- "Kirn Al-Manazel" for the person who comes to Mecca via  "Al-Taif'".

3- "Al-Jahfa": It is a small village lying near the road of pilgrims from "Jidda" to "Mecca". It is for those [Pilgrims] coming from Syria and Egypt.

4-The valley of Al-Aqiq [canyon]. It is a timing for those who come on the road from Iraq.

5- "Ylamlim" is a timing for those who come from by way of Yemen.


The form of Ihram whe he wears the two garments [ robes ] of Ihram, with the intention that it is for "Umrat Al-Tamatu", for pilgrimage and he answers (accept) "you-labbi" by saying, "Lebeik" [I obey Allah's order and carry it out], [Allahumma, Lebeik La sharika laka, Lebeik". It is commendable that Ihram is after ghusl and prayer as a" Nafila" or compulosory.


In Ihram, these things are prohibited:

1- Hunting the wild animals and eating it.

2- Sexual intercourse and all its sorts and categories.

3- Perfumes and personal scents.

4- Ornament and personal decoration (make up).

5- Looking at the mirror except for the driver.

6- Let the blood gets out from the body.

7- Debauchery.

8- Eyeliner.

9- Controversy [dispute].

10- Killing the body insects.

11- Oiling with perfume [scent].

12- Removing [plucking] the hair from the body.

13- Trimming the nails.

14- Immersion into the water [dipping].

15- Carrying arms.

16- Pulling out trees, plants and weeds.

17- Wearing clothes that are sewn for men.

18- Wearing the shoes that veil most of the apparent part of feet and also the socks and stockings specifically for men.

19- Veiling the head in the case of Ihram, specifically for men.

20- Shading while walking day and night.

21- Veiling the face with a covering in a way that it will touch the face for women specially.

22- Wearing gloves for women specially.

The Second: Perambulation.

The pilgrim goes round the ancient "Holy House" (Kaaba) seven times, the beginning of every round from "The Black Stone". The House should be on the left of the perambulator and his walking should be outside the "Holy House".

The Third: The prayer of Perambulation

It includes two units prayed at the place of the prophet "Abraham", if the pilgrim is able, but if he was unable, then he might perform the prayer when he becomes free after perambulation.

The Fourth:  The endeavor between, it begins from, "Al-Safa" to "Al-Marwa" and vice verse seven rounds: going is one round and coming is a second round.

The Fifth: Is shortening

that means to take some of the body hair or trimming the nails. The perambulation and its prayer are invalid without purity from "Al-Hadath", [the minor and the major happening] and wickedness and badness [mischievousness], and after finishing "Umrat Al-Tamatu", he should perform "Hajj Al-Tamatu".

The Deeds of "Hajj Al-Tamatu":

1- Al-Ihram in "The Holy Mosque" or from "Mecca", if possible, with the intention for "Hajj Al-Tamatu" by saying, "I perform Ihram for Hajj-Al-Tamatu rapprochement you [ Allah ]."

2- Staying in "Arafat" from noon of the ninth day until the sunset.

3- Going to the Valley of "Al-Masha'ar" after the sunset where the night-fall and night prayers are prayed, picking up little pebbles, as much as the jot [iota ], to throw at the three embers in "Mina".

4- Then going to the valley of "Mina" after the sunrise of the tenth day where the pilgrim performs three duties.

They are:

a. The throwing at the ember of "Al-Aqabaa".

b. The Slaughtering of the "Hadi" [a sacrifice, offering] to Allah. They pilgrim should eat "Corban", third, and gives the second as am alms, and the last part to the believers.

c. Shortening or shaving the hair of the head [for men] and shortening [for women].

5- Then coming back to "Mecca" again and performing the following deeds:

a. Going round "The Bayt" [The House] or the perambulation of Hajj [pilgrimage].

b. The prayer of perambulation near the position [place] of Abraham the prophet.

c. The endeavour between "Al-Safa" and "Al-Marwa".

d. Women perambulation [Tawaf Al-Nisa ’].

So, after doing these deeds, everything becomes allowed for the pilgrim except hunting. In perambulation and prayer, there should be purity from Hadath [major and minor happening] and badness and all with the intention of rapprochement Allah, the Most High. After finishing these deeds in "Mecca", he should return to "Mina" to throw stones at the three embers: first the middle and "Al-Aqabaa" according to the arrangement, seven pebbles at every one.

6- Staying at night [lodging] at "Mina" on the night of 11th and 12th, or he stays in "Mecca", busy in worship, perambulation, praying and reading "The Quran". If the pilgrim practices sexual intercourse with a woman or hunting [these are illicit], then he should stay the night of the 13th at "Mina", and on the 13th day throw at the three embers, as we mentioned before.

7- Then the pilgrim returns to "Mecca" to go round  the "House" [fare-well perambulation] asking Allah, The Most High, to accept his deed and to lead him to success and to come back.

8- Going forward to "Medina" to perform the rites of visiting the Prophet, peace be upon him and the graves of "Al-Aima" [the Imams], peace be upon them and the grave of Al-Zahra, peace be upon her, the martyrs and believers.

There are functions for the person who is away from "Mecca" 48 miles or more. As for the person whose homeland is less than this distance from  "Mecca" in this case, his function is the pilgrimage of "Al-Afrad" [individual Hajj], or [Hajj of Al-Kiran]. He has the right to choose one of them. He should also perform the individual Umra.


Individual [single] Umra:

The "single Umar" is not different from the "enjoyment umra" [Umrat Al-Tamatu] except in these matters:

1. It has no limited time.

2. It is the function of the person whose homeland is less than [48] miles from 'Mecca'.

3. Every Muslim should perform it whether he is far or near from Mecca, if the ability is available.

4. It is not an introduction [preface] for Hajj.

5. The Perambulation of women should be available opposite to Umrat Al-Tamatu.


6. The performer of single Umra should wear Ihram from the Meeqat, if his homeland is farther than the Meeqat and he should wear Ihram from his house if his house is nearer to "Mecca" than the "Meeqat" [timing].


Hajj Al-Afrad [Individual pilgrimage] or Hajj [Kiran]

These two sorts of Hajj are not different from "Hadj Al-Tamatu", except in two aspects only:

The First: It is the function of the person whose homeland is nearer to Mecca than[48 ] miles, and in Hajj "Al-Kiran", wear Ihram and take his sacrifice  to slaughter in" Mina".

The Second: It is allowed for the person [the pilgrim] who performed these two pilgrimages to introduce the perambulation round the "Holy House" and the endeavour between "Al-Safa and Al-Marwa", on standing in" Arafat" and "Al-Mash'ar", also the introduction of Umra on them is not considered [regarded].


The Conditions of the Obligation of Hajj

The First: The conditions of the person who should go to Hajj:

1- Maturity [adultness].

2. Brain [ mind ].

3. Freedom [ liberty ].


The Second: The conditions of the obligation of Hajj is the ability [capacity].

A. The space of time: the commissioned person can attain the pilgrimage in the specialized days by familiar ways.

B. The ability of food and comfort and everything that human being needs according to his condition, besides that he should take into consideration his provisions [supplies of food] and his family's provisions in a way that he will go for Hajj and perform the rites without hurting or affecting his family and his financial position.

C. The safety of the road and his security and the removal of obstacles [barriers], so the person, who should go to Hajj, and if he is unable physically to go, then he should deputize a person to go for him and similar for the dead. Ability can be achieved by the money of the individual and also by money given by others if it is sufficient for his supply and for his family on condition that spending [giving] the money is not causing a defect imperfection] and will not reduce the prestige and the character of the person or cause humiliation [note this is a summary for Hajj and Umra", for more details, look at the compassionate guide for Hajj of the Ancient House].